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Information about TOPIC VII 6 Alex1

Published on April 3, 2008

Author: Manlio


Slide1:  By: Alex Korchynski اْسِم و أفريقي Slide2:  South of the Fertile Crescent on the Arabian Peninsula Desert plateau: little vegetation: supported herders and flocks of sheep. Arabic herders: Bedouins Lived as nomads Organized into tribes – ruled by sheikh Slide3:  Coastal areas: temperate climate, supported large numbers of people. Towns grew, townspeople became traders. Goods came from Asia and Africa to the Red Sea, and then to Mecca where a caravan route started running north to Syria. Influenced by many cultures. MECCA Slide4:  Prophet of Islam Born in Mecca in 570. Made living as a caravan trader. Met many followers of monotheistic religions. This intrigued Muhammad. Age 40 – great religious experience: vision of Jibreel (Gabriel), ordering him to teach Allah’s word to the Arabs. Slide5:  Sent followers to Yathrib (Medina) “City of the Prophet.” This event was known as hijrah, meaning “flight” or “migration.” Followers became known as Muslims and began to convert desert tribes. Invaded Mecca and destroyed statues at the Ka’bah, a place of worship. Became Islam’s holiest shrine. 632 – Muhammad died. Slide6:  Central belief: only one God. Torah and Christian scriptures. Special tolerance for Christians and Jews, or “People of the Book.” Taught Five Pillars of Islam. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: Recite the profession of faith: “I bear witness that there is no deity except Allah, and that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.” Pray five times a day facing Mecca. Give alms to the poor. Fast during Ramadan. If possible, make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. Slide7:  Drink alcoholic beverages Eat pork (think pigs are unclean) Muslims are forbidden to: Polygamy: Islam restricted a Muslim man to four wives, who needed to be treated equally. Women gained certain rights after marriage concerning property ownership. Freeing slaves was considered an act of goodness. Those who kept slaves had to treat them humanely. The importance of jihad was emphasized. Anyone who died in this stuggle was considered a martyr and would receive the blessings of God and the rewards of heaven. Mosques have no religious images or statues. Islam discourages representation in animal or human forms. On Friday at noon, Muslim men gather for a sermon in the mosque. Women also gather in a “set aside” section of the mosque. Slide8:  When Muhammad died in 632, Abu Bakr was chosen as his successor. Used the title caliph. It meant “successor to the Prophet.” ABU BAKR: Kept faith from falling apart. Expanded northward. -SUCCESSOR: Umar. Effective gov’t. -SUCCESSOR: Uthman. DIVISION OF ISLAM Slide9:  Uthman: killed by rebels. ALI: new caliph. Mu’awiya, Uthman’s cousin, said Ali protected Uthman’s killers. WAR BETWEEN ALI + MU’AWIYA ALI : assassinated His followers believed that only Ali’s descendants should rule and interpret the Qur’an. Known as SHIITES Ali’s successors: IMAMS Thought one person should have spiritual and secular power. MU’AWIYA : new ruler Followers: SUNNIS Instead of a vote, believed laws should be established by talking, discussing, and coming to an agreement. SUFI’s Muslim mystics Stern lifestyle Believed that a person’s personal faith in God was most important. GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY:  GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMY Caliph: civil, military, and religious leader headed the government. Disagreements developed – empire broke into caliphates, ruled by caliphs in: Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba. Trade flourished, manufacturing increased, encouraged development of agriculture. Built irrigation systems. SOCIETY AND ART:  SOCIETY AND ART Father: head of the family. Elderly were respected. Arranged marriages. Men gave a sadaq or mahr, meaning dowery, to his bride. Government had educational systems. NO human forms of God; decorative arts and calligraphy assumed importance. Mosques, palaces, marketplaces, libraries, and other buildings were designed to emphasize Islam and the ruler’s power. SCIENTIFIC AND MATHEMATICAL ADVANCES:  SCIENTIFIC AND MATHEMATICAL ADVANCES Combined ideas with those of Greece, Rome, and Asia. Scientists wrote books and encyclopedias. Geographers and navigators perfected the astrolabe and made maps. Added medical knowledge. Al-Razi, a physician, wrote about surgery, smallpox, and measles in a huge encyclopedia that was used for centuries. Ibn-Sina wrote the Canon of Medicine, medical textbook. Ibn-Rushd wrote commentaries based on Aristotle’s works and Plato’s Republic. The word algebra comes from al-jabr, meaning “restoring.” Spread of Muslim Culture:  Spread of Muslim Culture Europeans encountered Muslim culture in two ways: (1) Through contact with Spain. Córdoba and Toledo were centers for learning. (2) The Crusades. The era of Arab Muslim culture lasted from the 700s to the 1100s. THE TURKS:  THE TURKS Saljuq Turks migrated to Baghdad and adopted Islam. Sultan ruled over secular affairs while caliph had religious power. First half of 1300s: Ottomans came through Asia Minor and invaded Europe. Established capital at Adrianople. Mehmet II took Constantinople in 1453. Sultans formed a group of slave soldiers called Janissaries. Instructed on Islamic beliefs and laws and organized as an army of disciplined, trained infantry. Ottoman rulers allowed religious minorities to practice religions in groups called millets. Could establish a civil government and collect taxes. PHYSICAL SETTING OF AFRICA:  PHYSICAL SETTING OF AFRICA Plateau, steep shoreline, few harbors. RIVERS: Niger, Congo, Zambezi, and Nile Limited trade protected Africa from invasion. Few harbors hindered long-distance communication and contact with other people. North coast: Mediterranean climate Sahara is below, covering ¼ of the continent. Southern edge of Sahara is the Sahel. Severe droughts due to unpredictable rainfall. South of the Sahel are savannas (grasslands) with few trees and bushes. Kalahari and Namib deserts cover southern Africa. Tropical rainforests in western and central Africa. Receive more than 100 inches of rain / year. Great Rift Valley: steep-sided crack running north and south along plateau’s eastern edge. Isolated mountains: Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro. Highland regions: Ethiopian Plateau, Atlas Mts., and Drakensberg Mts. Rediscovering Africa’s Past:  Rediscovering Africa’s Past Lexicostatistics helped solve mystery of how Bantu (closely related languages in Africa) spread. Oral Tradition: Africans always had a strong sense of their history. Families and villages told stories, poetry, or sang songs, to keep their history alive. PATTERNS OF LIFE:  PATTERNS OF LIFE Lived in small, independent villages. Farmers, herders, or fishers. Women played an important role in society. They were the primary farmers. Societies were matrilineal. People traced their ancestors through their mothers. Religion was important as well. Believed that spirits occupied the world. Elders held authority. Life was closely bound to agricultural cycles. KUSH:  KUSH City-state along Nile, south of Ancient Egypt. Important area for gold, ivory, ebony, and ostrich feathers. Caravans hauled goods from Red Sea to barges on Nile. Trace roots to city of Kerma. Dynasty and capital at Napata. Isolated from Egypt’s culture by 1000 B.C. 710 B.C. – conquered Upper Egypt. Assyrians invaded in 671 B.C. Kingdom weakened. Napata fell in 592 B.C.; new capital at Meroë. At height from 250-150 B.C. AKSUM:  AKSUM Ethiopian highlands, from Red Sea into interior of Africa. Major competitor for control of trade. Sent exotic goods to Mediterranean by way of Egypt. A.D. 330 – King Ezana defeated Kush and established a kingdom. Converted to Christianity, which has remained an important influence in the region. Next 400 yrs., controlled African side of Red Sea trade. Influence beyond region ended with Islam’s rise. Muslim forces controlled Arabian and African sides of the Red Sea. EAST AFRICA AND TRADE:  EAST AFRICA AND TRADE Monsoons provided reliable travel. Sailors explored and developed trade routes. Exported: gold, slaves, ivory, hides, tortoise shells. Imported: porcelain, weapons. Islam’s spread: favorable balance of trade. Attracted merchant families, adventurers, and refugees fleeing from Shi’ah – Sunni conflicts in Arabia and Persia. Swahili developed – a Bantu language with Arabian and Persian influences. Language brought a culture together that wasn’t very unified. Kilwa, most famous city-state, was one of leading ports on African coast. Coastal civilization flourished. Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler, described Kilwa as one of the most beautiful and well-constructed cities in the world. CENTRAL AFRICA AND GREAT ZIMBABWE:  CENTRAL AFRICA AND GREAT ZIMBABWE Kilwa grew as a gold-shipping port. Small trade networks also grew exchanging salt, tools, and cloth. Increase in gold demand. Shona people took control over local peoples and mining activities. Built fortresses like the Great Zimbabwe. It was 60 acres. Stones stayed in place without mortar. Civilization declined in 1400s. Population was growing quickly and there wasn’t enough food and water to support it. KINGDOMS + CULTURES OF WEST AFRICA:  KINGDOMS + CULTURES OF WEST AFRICA Ghana, Mali, and Songhay Wealth and strength depended on trade routes across the Sahara. Traders exchanged gold from south of the Sahel for salt from the Sahara. Monarchs ruled and were helped by officials. They were adorned with gold. Below monarchs were farmers, merchants, fishers, and cattle breeders. Slaves were at the bottom of the social pyramid. GHANA:  GHANA Earliest kingdom. Traced origins to Kumbi. At peak in 1000s, but it was short-lived. Muslim religious revival stirred up the Berber tribes. They invaded Ghana, and Ghana never recovered. MALI:  MALI Reached peak under Mansa Musa. Made pilgrimage to Mecca with 80,000 pilgrims and 500 slaves, each carrying a 4 lb. bar of gold. Supported education, arts, and building. Timbuktu: important learning center. Large university there. Sunni Ali captured Timbuktu establishing a third kingdom, Songhay. SONGHAY:  SONGHAY Important trade city: Gao. Sunni Ali was the founder. An excellent soldier and administrator, he established a government. Divided into provinces with governors and officials. Built fleet of warships.

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CeraVe | 17/02/15
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