Topic 1 the human body__2171102

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Information about Topic 1 the human body__2171102

Published on November 22, 2016

Author: profgbr

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1. Gujarat Technological University Topic:1: The Human Body Subject: BMI, Code: 2171102,A.Y : 2016-17 Compiled By: Prof G B Rathod EC Dept., BVM Engineering college V. V Nagar, Anand, Gujarat, India Email: ghansyam.rathod@bvmengineering.ac.in 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 1

2. Outlines • Overview Cell Structure • Body Fluids • Major Systems of the Body • Outcomes • References 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 2

3. Overview Cell Structure • All mammals, including humans, are made up of basic building blocks called cells. • The different types of cells perform different jobs and so have different gross structures. • The size of cells also varies, ranging from 200 nm to several centimeters in length. Most cells, however, fall within the range of 0.5 to 20 micrometer. • The cell is surrounded by semipermeable membrane. • The structure of most cells includes a nucleus inside of the cell, separated from the surrounding cytoplasm by its own membrane. The nucleus contains the genetic coding of reproducible cells. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 3

4. Overview Cell Structure 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 4 Fig.1.1: Diverse forms Of mammalian cells (Not to the same scale)

5. Overview Cell Structure • Cells in the human body are quite numerous. It has been estimated that there are approximately 75 trillion cells in the body, of which one third (25 trillion) are red blood cells. • All cells in a many celled animal retain certain powers or characteristics, such as organization, irritability (i.e., response to external stimuli), nutrition, metabolism, respiration and excretion. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 5

6. Body Fluids • The body is almost two thirds fluid ( Actually, approximately 56%). • Intracellular fluids contains large concentration of potassium, magnesium and phosphate ions; • Extracellular fluids contains significant concentrations of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate ions, oxygen, amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and carbon dioxide. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 6

7. Major Systems of the body • Musculoskeletal system • The muscles and bones of the body provide locomotion.( i.e. the ability to move around and manipulate our surroundings). • If it were not for locomotion, human would be more dependent on the local environment. • Human would not be able to move to avoid danger, find food and water, or erect shelter from the elements. • Fig. 1.2 shows the principal structure of the musculoskeletal system. • The bones are joined together to form articulations and joints and so are able to move with respect to each other. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 7

8. Major Systems of the body 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 8 Fig.1.3: Musculoskeletal system

9. Major Systems of the body • Respiration System • The respiratory system takes oxygen into the body and gives off carbon dioxide waste products from the cells. • The respiratory system includes the mouth; nose; trachea, or windpipe; bronchi; and lungs. • Deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart passes trough the lungs: only 0.4 to 2.0 micrometer of membrane separate the air carrying alveoli from the pulmonary capillaries. • Gaseous oxygen diffuses across this membrane into the blood stream, while carbon dioxide comes out of the blood, into the alveoli, to be exhaled into the atmosphere. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 9

10. Major Systems of the body • Gastrointestinal system • The GI system takes in raw materials in the form of food and liquids and process them so that they are absorbed into the body. • The system includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. • Digestion of food is the process of breaking down, liquefying and chemically processing food stuffs so that they cab be used by the body. • Both mechanical mixing and chemical breakdown occurs in the stomach. See the figure 1.3 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 10

11. Major Systems of the body 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 11 Fig.1.3: Gastrointestinal system

12. Major Systems of the body • Nervous system • The nervous system is essential to the functioning of the human organism. • It regulates our automatic control systems, integrates and assimilates data from the outside world and our internal organs, and regulates and controls the locomotors system. • The automatic nervous system is responsible for regulating the automatic function of the body- heartbeat, glad secretions, GI system, and so forth. • The automatic nervous system operates at a subconscious level- you are not aware of its functioning. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 12

13. Major Systems of the body • The sensory nervous system receives data from the outside world and certain internal organs through cells that function as sensory receptors.(i.e.., transduces, in electrical terminology). • The eyes and ears are sensory receptors for light and sound, respectively. But there are also other sensory structures that are sensitive to pain, heat and pressure. • The central nervous system (CNS) gathers, as similates, and integrates data from the outside world, information on the state of internal organs, etc. • The brain is the principal organ of the CNS, and , like computer, it can store, process, and generate information and react to stimuli. The CNS also includes the spinal cord. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 13

14. Major Systems of the body • Endocrine System • Central Nervous system is an electrical communications and control system within the body, the endocrine system is a chemical communication/control system and aids in the regulation of internal body states. • Chemicals called hormones are secreted by the eight major endocrine glades into the bloodstream, in which they act as control agents to regulate various organic functions. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 14

15. Major Systems of the body • The Circulatory system • The circulatory system transports body fluids around the body from one organ to another. • Figure1.4 shows a schematic representation of the blood circulatory system. • The transport of blood is caused by a pressure built up when the heart, a pump, contracts. • Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle is pumped throughout the body delivering oxygen to the various organs and tissues. • It is claimed that the human blood circulatory system is so extensive that no cell in the body is farther than one cell’s diameter from a small vessel, or capillary. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 15

16. Major Systems of the body • The oxygenated blood flows in arteries to the organs. The blood flowing into the vessels of the GI tract picks up nutrients and water. • The portion of the blood flows into the kidneys is cleaned of impurities and waste products, which are excreted through the bladder urethra. The kidney act as blood filter. • The blood gives up much of its oxygen to the tissues, and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart in the veins. • Deoxygenated blood enters the right side of the heart at the right atrium. It is then pumped into the right ventricle and out of the heart to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and takes on a fresh supply of oxygen. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 16

17. Major Systems of the body 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 17 Fig.1.4: Circulatory system.

18. Outcomes • The cell structure and brief overview can be understood. • The human body fluids, and the major system of the body are understood with a brief introduction and diagrams. 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 18

19. References • Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology by Joseph J. Carr. and John M. Brown. Forth Edition Pearson Publication- 2012. • http://miriamatteya.weebly.com/ 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 19

20. Thank You 11/22/2016 BMI_2171101 20

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