Tools for Process Modelling

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Information about Tools for Process Modelling

Published on December 10, 2008

Author: ishan27


Tools for Process Modeling : Tools for Process Modeling Dr. Gita A Kumta Tools for Business Process Modeling : Tools for Business Process Modeling Flow Chart Activity Flow Diagram Data Flow Diagram Communication Flow Diagram Use – Case Diagram SIPOC of Six Sigma System Dynamics Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) Flowcharting : Flowcharting A tool for analysing processes and is the most basic method of process mapping.. A graphical representation of sequence of activities carried out as part of the process from start to end along with their inter-relationships and inter-dependence. Promotes better understanding of processes. Slide 4: Start or end of the program Computational steps or processing function of a program Input or output operation Decision making and branching Connector or joining of two parts of program Flow Line Flowcharting Symbols Activity Flow Representation Symbols : Activity Flow Representation Symbols Predictive Car Maintenance of a Rental Car : Predictive Car Maintenance of a Rental Car Involves obtaining and using information about the problems with the cars from customers. Relevant problems are those that can be prevented in the future through predictive maintenance. Holistic System Diagram : Holistic System Diagram Activity Flow Representation : Activity Flow Representation DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS : DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Data flow diagrams illustrate how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and outputs. Notations- Process - Data store - Data flow - External Entity Types of Notations Yourdon & Coad Gane & Sarson. Data Flow Diagram Symbols : Data Flow Diagram Symbols ProcessA process transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flow. Data StoreData stores are repositories of data in the system. They are sometimes also referred to as files. DataflowData flows are pipelines through which packets of information flow. Label the arrows with the name of the data that moves through it. External EntityExternal entities are sources and destinations of the system's inputs and outputs. Data Flow Diagram Yourdon & Coad : Data Flow Diagram Yourdon & Coad Data Flow Processes Source or Destination of data Data Store Data Flow Diagram Symbols Gane & Sarson : Data Flow Diagram Symbols Gane & Sarson Rules for drawing DFD : Rules for drawing DFD Work from the Top Down Explode Processes for More Details Maintain consistency between Processes Add controls on lower-level Diagrams Assign meaningful Labels Avoid - Document copy description - Time descriptions, logic, control description (if’,’when’) - Procedure control descriptions (Get next) Data Flow Diagram Layers : Data Flow Diagram Layers Draw data flow diagrams in several nested layers. A single process node on a high level diagram can be expanded to show a more detailed data flow diagram. Draw the context diagram first, followed by various layers of data flow diagrams. Context Diagrams : Context Diagrams A context diagram is a top level data flow diagram. Also known as Level 0. It only contains one process node (process 0) that generalizes the function of the entire system in relationship to external entities. Context Diagram : Context Diagram Data Flow Diagram : Data Flow Diagram Communication Flow Representation Symbols : Communication Flow Representation Symbols Communication Flow Representation : Communication Flow Representation Use Case Diagram Symbols : Use Case Diagram Symbols Use Case Diagram : Use Case Diagram Identifying Objects and Operations : Identifying Objects and Operations define “objects” by underlining all nouns in the written statement of scope producers/consumers of data places where data are stored “composite” data items define “operations” by double underlining all active verbs processes relevant to the application data transformations consider other “services” that will be required by the objects What is a Function Model? : What is a Function Model? Identify functions that transform data objects Indicate how data flows through the system Represent producers and consumers of data Use-Cases : Use-Cases A collection of scenarios that describe the thread of usage of a system Each scenario is described from the point-of-view of an “actor”- a person or device that interacts with the software in some way Questions Answered : Questions Answered What are the main tasks or functions performed by the actor? What system information will the actor acquire, produce or change? Will the actor inform the system about environmental changes? What information does the actor require of the system? Does the actor wish to be informed about unexpected changes What is a Data Object? : What is a Data Object? Object — something that is described by a set of attributes (data items) and that will be manipulated within the software (system). Each instance of an object (e.g., a book) can be identified uniquely (e.g., ISBN #) Each plays a necessary role in the system i.e., the system could not function without access to instances of the object Each is described by attributes that are themselves data items Typical Objects : Typical Objects External entities (printer, user, sensor) Items (e.g, reports, displays, signals) Occurrences or events (e.g., interrupt, alarm) Roles (e.g., manager, engineer, salesperson) Organizational units (e.g., division, team) Places (e.g., manufacturing floor) Structures (e.g., employee record) Data Objects and Attributes : Data Objects and Attributes A data object contains a set of attributes that act as an aspect, quality, characteristic, or descriptor of the object object: automobile attributes: make model body type price options code Operations and Knowledge communication : Operations and Knowledge communication Communication of knowledge at business process execution time could lead to productivity and quality-related losses. Which situations lead to such losses? Distinguish between two generic types of business processes: Operational business processes. Organizational learning processes. Six Sigma : Six Sigma Structured, disciplined, rigorous, approach to process improvement Tactical Stages Define Measure Analyze Improve Control SIPOC diagram : SIPOC diagram A tool used by a team to identify all relevant elements of a process improvement project before work begins. It helps define a complex project that may not be well scoped, and Is typically employed at the Measure phase of the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology. Similar and is related to Process Mapping tools, but provides additional detail. Understanding SIPOC : Understanding SIPOC Prompts the team to consider the Suppliers (the 'S' in SIPOC) of your process, Inputs (the 'I') to the process, Process (the 'P') your team is improving, Outputs (the 'O') of the process, and the Customers (the 'C') that receive the process outputs. In some cases, Requirements of the Customers can be appended to the end of the SIPOC for further detail. Usefulness of SIPOC tool : Usefulness of SIPOC tool Particularly useful when it is not clear: Who supplies Inputs to the process? What specifications are placed on the Inputs? Who are the true Customers of the process? What are the Requirements of the customers? System Dynamics : System Dynamics System dynamics is a method for understanding the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Basis: Recognition that the structure of any system is often just as important in determining its behavior as the individual components themselves. In some cases the behavior of the whole cannot be explained in terms of the behavior of the parts. Uses simulation to study the behaviour of systems and the impact of alternative policies. Application : Application System dynamics has been used to investigate resource dependencies, and resulting problems, in product development. Gain qualitative insight into the workings of a system or the consequences of a decision Recognize archetypes of dysfunctional systems in everyday practice System Dynamics Diagrams : System Dynamics Diagrams Elements of system dynamics diagrams are feedback, accumulation of flows into stocks and time delays. Causal Loop diagram (CLD) : Causal Loop diagram (CLD) A diagram that aids in visualizing how interrelated variables affect one another. Consists of a set of nodes representing the variables connected together. The relationships between these variables, represented by arrows, can be labelled as positive or negative. Case : Case Imagine an organisation that plans to introduce an innovative new durable consumer product. The organisation needs to understand the possible market dynamics in order to design marketing and production plans. Slide 41: Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) Two Feedback Loops Positive reinforcement (labeled R) loop on the right indicates that the more people have already adopted the new product, the stronger the word-of-mouth impact. Should generate sales that continue to grow. Second feedback loop on the left is negative reinforcement (or "balancing" and hence labeled B). Clearly growth can not continue forever, because as more and more people adopt, there remain fewer and fewer potential adopters. Both feedback loops act simultaneously, but at different times they may have different strengths. Thus one would expect growing sales in the initial years, and then declining sales in the later years. Stock and Flow Diagrams : Stock and Flow Diagrams A stock (or "level variable") in this broader sense is some entity that is accumulated over time by inflows and/or depleted by outflows. A flow (or "rate") changes a stock over time. Usually we can clearly distinguish inflows (adding to the stock) and outflows (subtracting from the stock). Flows typically are measured over a certain interval of time - eg. the number of births over a day or month. Stocks can only be changed via flows. Stocks typically have a certain value at each moment of time - e.g. the number of population at a certain moment. Stock and Flow Diagrams : Stock and Flow Diagrams A stock is the term for any entity that accumulates or depletes over time. A flow is the rate of change in a stock. Slide 44: Stock and Flow Diagram for the case In the example, there are two stocks: Potential adopters and Adopters. There is one flow: New adopters. For every new adopter, the stock of potential adopters declines by one, and the stock of adopters increases by one. Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) : Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) The Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) has developed a standard Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) in May, 2004. Primary goal of the BPMN effort was to provide a notation that is readily understandable by all business users, business analysts that create the initial drafts of the processes, technical developers responsible for implementing the technology that will perform those processes, business people who will manage and monitor those processes. Defines a Business Process Diagram (BPD), which is based on a flowcharting technique tailored for creating graphical models of business process operations - A Business Process Model. Flow Objects : Flow Objects Event: Represented by a circle Is something that “happens” during the course of a business process and have a cause (trigger) or an impact (result). Three types of Events, based on when they affect the flow: Start, Intermediate, and End. Activity: Represented by a rounded-corner rectangle Is a generic term for work that company performs. Types of Activities are: Task and Sub-Process. Gateway: Represented by the familiar diamond shape Used to control the divergence and convergence of Sequence Flow. Determines traditional decisions, forking, merging, and joining of paths. Connecting Objects : Connecting Objects Sequence Flow: Represented by a solid line with a solid arrowhead. Used to show the order (the sequence) that activities will be performed in a Process. Message Flow: Represented by a dashed line with an open arrowhead. Used to show the flow of messages between two separate Process Participants (business entities or business roles) that send and receive them. Association: Represented by a dotted line with a line arrowhead Used to associate data, text, and other Artifacts with flow objects. Example of a Simple Business Process : Example of a Simple Business Process Swimlanes : Swimlanes Pool represents a Participant in a Process. Acts as a graphical container for partitioning a set of activities from other Pools usually in the context of B2B situations. Lane is a sub-partition within a Pool and will extend the entire length of the Pool, either vertically or horizontally. Lanes are used to organize and categorize activities BPD with Pools : BPD with Pools Involves two separate business entities or participants and are physically separated in the diagram. Message Flow is defined as being the mechanism to show the communication between two participants. Segment of a Process with Lanes : Segment of a Process with Lanes Lanes are often used to separate the activities associated with a specific company function or role. Sequence Flow may cross the boundaries of Lanes within a Pool. Artifacts : Artifacts Data Object: A mechanism to show how data is required or produced by activities. They are connected to activities through Associations. Group: Represented by a rounded corner rectangle drawn with a dashed line The grouping can be used for documentation or analysis purposes, but does not affect the Sequence Flow. Annotation: A mechanism for a modeler to provide additional text information for the reader of a BPMN Diagram. Segment of a Process with Data Objects, Groups, and Annotations : Segment of a Process with Data Objects, Groups, and Annotations Value of modeling in BPMN : Value of modeling in BPMN The membership of the BPMI Notation Working Group represents consensus of a large segment of the business process modeling community. Reduces the fragmentation that exists with the myriad of process modeling tools and notations and seeks to consolidate the best ideas from divergent notations. Attempts to reduce confusion among business and IT end-users. Business process models developed by business people have been technically separated from the process representations required to implement and execute those processes. Fragmentation has hampered the wide-spread adoption of inter-operable business process management systems. Mapping a BPMN Diagram to BPEL4WS : Mapping a BPMN Diagram to BPEL4WS To help alleviate the modeling technical gap - create a bridge from the business-oriented process modeling notation to IT-oriented execution. Languages that will implement the processes within a business process management system. The graphical objects of BPMN, supported by a rich set of object attributes, have been mapped to the Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS v1.1), the defacto standard for process execution. BPD with Annotations to Show the Mapping to BPEL4WS : BPD with Annotations to Show the Mapping to BPEL4WS

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