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To what extent do people usually strive for accuracy in their self-evaluations?

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Published on April 4, 2008

Author: steinhart

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We self-overestimate and we have no clue that we do so!
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Psy Persp. on Self & Identity Topic 1: To what extent do people usually strive for accuracy in their self-evaluations? Alexander Steinhart Course C8027, Spring 2008 Sussex University Viv Vignoles

Topic 1:

To what extent do people usually strive for accuracy in their self-evaluations?

Alexander Steinhart

Course C8027, Spring 2008

Sussex University

This Presentation - Overview Introduction Main points, briefly we self-overestimate Self-Serving Judgments examples are (un)aware of this? Self-Evaluation Process Information, sources and use Questions Discussion

Introduction

Main points, briefly

we self-overestimate

Self-Serving Judgments

examples

are (un)aware of this?

Self-Evaluation Process

Information, sources and use

Questions

Discussion

We self-overestimate…

Self-Serving Judgments Roese N. and Olson J. (2007)

e.g. planning fallacy

e.g. downward social comparison

e.g. attributions of success / failure Zuckerman (1979)

… and we have no clue that we do so!

… the Self-Evaluation Process I self-assessment, accurate ‘ people pursue accurate self-knowledge’ self-verification, conservative ‘ people pursue highly certain self- knowledge’ self-enhancement, biased ‘ people pursue favourable self-knowledge’ self-improvement* adds a dynamic & future oriented quality to the above three that seek more for a status quo Sedikides (1993) *extended by Taylor, Neter & Wayment (1995)

self-assessment, accurate

‘ people pursue accurate self-knowledge’

self-verification, conservative

‘ people pursue highly certain self- knowledge’

self-enhancement, biased

‘ people pursue favourable self-knowledge’

self-improvement*

adds a dynamic & future oriented quality to the above three that seek more for a status quo

… the Self-Evaluation Process II “ The self-enhancement motive emerged as the most powerful determinant of the self-evaluation process, followed by the self-verification motive.” “ Are people aware of their self-enhancing shading on the self-evaluation process? [..] Experiment 5 suggests that they are not! ” Sedikides (1993) … and self-improvement? Taylor, Neter, & Wayment (1995)

“ The self-enhancement motive emerged as the most powerful determinant of the self-evaluation process, followed by the self-verification motive.”

“ Are people aware of their self-enhancing shading on the self-evaluation process? [..] Experiment 5 suggests that they are not! ”

Sedikides (1993)

… and self-improvement?

Taylor, Neter, & Wayment (1995)

… the Self-Evaluation Process II self-assessment, accurate ‘ people pursue accurate self-knowledge’ self-verification, conservative ‘ people pursue highly certain self- knowledge’ self-enhancement, biased ‘ people pursue favourable self-knowledge’ self-improvement adds a dynamic & future oriented quality to the above three that seek more for a status quo Sedikides and Strube (1997) direct indirect increased positive conception of oneself People are not aware of their self-enhancing shading.

self-assessment, accurate

‘ people pursue accurate self-knowledge’

self-verification, conservative

‘ people pursue highly certain self- knowledge’

self-enhancement, biased

‘ people pursue favourable self-knowledge’

self-improvement

adds a dynamic & future oriented quality to the above three that seek more for a status quo

Sedikides and Strube (1997)

Information, sources and use Taylor, Neter & Wayment (1995): “… different motives might be simultaneously satisfied [...] different motives are satisfied by different sources of information …” “ Future research should probe the use of social feedback for self-evaluation more fully, detailing in what circumstances and from what targets individuals may elicit feedback. * 3 ” Self-consistency theory - limited used of information when this is inconsistent with the existing self-concept “ 3. For example, one of the authors noted that many subjects mentioned they turned to their mothers for feedback when they experienced a need to feel good about themselves ( self-enhancement ), but whether this is a reliable phenomenon remains to be seen.”

Taylor, Neter & Wayment (1995):

“… different motives might be simultaneously satisfied [...] different motives are satisfied by different sources of information …”

“ Future research should probe the use of social feedback for self-evaluation more fully, detailing in what circumstances and from what targets individuals may elicit feedback. * 3 ”

Self-consistency theory - limited used of information when this is inconsistent with the existing self-concept

(Un)aware? “ Thus, people misjudge their incompetence not because of lack of honesty with themselves but rather because of a lack of the essential cognitive tools needed to provide correct self-judgments.” Dunning (2006)

“ Thus, people misjudge their incompetence not because of lack of honesty with themselves but rather because of a lack of the essential cognitive tools needed to provide correct self-judgments.”

Dunning (2006)

Summary Q: Do we strive for accuracy in self-evaluations? we self-overestimate e.g. Self-Serving Judgments we are unaware of this Self-Evaluation Process Self-enhancement Self-verification Self-improvement Information, sources and use A: Yes, but we do not manage.

Q: Do we strive for accuracy in self-evaluations?

we self-overestimate

e.g. Self-Serving Judgments

we are unaware of this

Self-Evaluation Process

Self-enhancement

Self-verification

Self-improvement

Information, sources and use

A: Yes, but we do not manage.

Further Questions - Discussion How can it be explained that people hold positive illusions about themselves, their world, and their future, while still copying successfully with an environment that would seem to demand accurate appreciation of feedback? (Taylor & Brown, 1997) Why do we not strive for accuracy in our self-evaluations? Does this go beyond the positive self? Is this strive for a positive self based on the own motivation or failure in information processing? What is the relation of self-esteem in this?

How can it be explained that people hold positive illusions about themselves, their world, and their future, while still copying successfully with an environment that would seem to demand accurate appreciation of feedback? (Taylor & Brown, 1997)

Why do we not strive for accuracy in our self-evaluations? Does this go beyond the positive self?

Is this strive for a positive self based on the own motivation or failure in information processing?

What is the relation of self-esteem in this?

Questions?

References Alicke, M. D., Klotz, M. L., Breitenbecher, D. L., Yurak, T. J. & Vredenburg, D. S. (1995). Personal contact, individuation, and the better-than-average effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 804-825. Anseel, F., Lievens, F., & Levy, P.E. (2007). A self-motives perspective on feedback-seeking behavior: Linking organizational behavior and social psychology research. International Journal of Management Reviews , 9, 211-236. Dunning, D. (2006). Strangers to ourselves? The Psychologist, 19, 600-603. Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603-618. Roese, N. J., & Olson, J. M. (2007). Better, stronger, faster: Self-serving judgment, affect regulation, and the optimal vigilance hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 2, 124-141. Sedikides, C. (1993). Assessment, enhancement, and verification determinants of the selfevaluation process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 317-338 Sedikides, C., & Strube, M. J. (1997). Self-evaluation: To thine own self be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 209–269). New York: Academic Pre Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1994). Positive illusions and well-being revisited: Separating fact from fiction. Psychological Bulletin , 116, 21-27. Taylor, S. E., Neter, E., & Wayment, H. A. (1995). Self-evaluation processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1278 - 1287. Vignoles, V. L., Regalia, C., Manzi, C., Golledge, J. & Scabini, E. (2006). Beyond self-esteem: Influence of multiple motives on identity construction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 90, 308-333. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Attribution of success and failure revisited: or The motivational bias is alive and well in attribution theory. Journal of Personality, 47, 245-287.

Alicke, M. D., Klotz, M. L., Breitenbecher, D. L., Yurak, T. J. & Vredenburg, D. S. (1995). Personal contact, individuation, and the better-than-average effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 804-825.

Anseel, F., Lievens, F., & Levy, P.E. (2007). A self-motives perspective on feedback-seeking behavior: Linking organizational behavior and social psychology research. International Journal of Management Reviews , 9, 211-236.

Dunning, D. (2006). Strangers to ourselves? The Psychologist, 19, 600-603.

Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603-618.

Roese, N. J., & Olson, J. M. (2007). Better, stronger, faster: Self-serving judgment, affect regulation, and the optimal vigilance hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science , 2, 124-141.

Sedikides, C. (1993). Assessment, enhancement, and verification determinants of the selfevaluation process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 317-338

Sedikides, C., & Strube, M. J. (1997). Self-evaluation: To thine own self be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 209–269). New York: Academic Pre

Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1994). Positive illusions and well-being revisited: Separating fact from fiction. Psychological Bulletin , 116, 21-27.

Taylor, S. E., Neter, E., & Wayment, H. A. (1995). Self-evaluation processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1278 - 1287.

Vignoles, V. L., Regalia, C., Manzi, C., Golledge, J. & Scabini, E. (2006). Beyond self-esteem: Influence of multiple motives on identity construction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 90, 308-333.

Zuckerman, M. (1979). Attribution of success and failure revisited: or The motivational bias is alive and well in attribution theory. Journal of Personality, 47, 245-287.

Additional Material Anseel, Lievens & Levy (2007)

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