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Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Susann

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Basic concepts of Data Mining, Clustering and Genetic Algorithms:  Basic concepts of Data Mining, Clustering and Genetic Algorithms Tsai-Yang Jea Department of Computer Science and Engineering SUNY at Buffalo Data Mining Motivation:  Data Mining Motivation Mechanical production of data need for mechanical consumption of data Large databases = vast amounts of information Difficulty lies in accessing it KDD and Data Mining:  KDD and Data Mining KDD: Extraction of knowledge from data “non-trivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown & potentially useful knowledge from data” Data Mining: Discovery stage of the KDD process Data Mining Techniques:  Data Mining Techniques Query tools Statistical techniques Visualization On-line analytical processing (OLAP) Clustering Classification Decision trees Association rules Neural networks Genetic algorithms Any technique that helps to extract more out of data is useful What’s Clustering:  What’s Clustering Clustering is a kind of unsupervised learning. Clustering is a method of grouping data that share similar trend and patterns. Clustering of data is a method by which large sets of data is grouped into clusters of smaller sets of similar data. Example: Thus, we see clustering means grouping of data or dividing a large data set into smaller data sets of some similarity. After clustering: The usage of clustering:  The usage of clustering Some engineering sciences such as pattern recognition, artificial intelligence have been using the concepts of cluster analysis. Typical examples to which clustering has been applied include handwritten characters, samples of speech, fingerprints, and pictures. In the life sciences (biology, botany, zoology, entomology, cytology, microbiology), the objects of analysis are life forms such as plants, animals, and insects. The clustering analysis may range from developing complete taxonomies to classification of the species into subspecies. The subspecies can be further classified into subspecies. Clustering analysis is also widely used in information, policy and decision sciences. The various applications of clustering analysis to documents include votes on political issues, survey of markets, survey of products, survey of sales programs, and R & D. A Clustering Example:  A Clustering Example Income: High Children:1 Car:Luxury Income: Low Children:0 Car:Compact Car: Sedan and Children:3 Income: Medium Income: Medium Children:2 Car:Truck Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Different ways of representing clusters:  Different ways of representing clusters (b) g i f e c b K Means Clustering (Iterative distance-based clustering):  K Means Clustering (Iterative distance-based clustering) K means clustering is an effective algorithm to extract a given number of clusters of patterns from a training set. Once done, the cluster locations can be used to classify patterns into distinct classes. K means clustering (Cont.):  K means clustering (Cont.) Select the k cluster centers randomly. Store the k cluster centers. Loop until the change in cluster means is less the amount specified by the user. The drawbacks of K-means clustering:  The drawbacks of K-means clustering The final clusters do not represent a global optimization result but only the local one, and complete different final clusters can arise from difference in the initial randomly chosen cluster centers. (fig. 1) We have to know how many clusters we will have at the first. Drawback of K-means clustering (Cont.):  Drawback of K-means clustering (Cont.) Figure 1 Clustering with Genetic Algorithm:  Clustering with Genetic Algorithm Introduction of Genetic Algorithm Elements consisting GAs Genetic Representation Genetic operators Introduction of GAs:  Introduction of GAs Inspired by biological evolution. Many operators mimic the process of the biological evolution including Natural selection Crossover Mutation Elements consisting GAs:  Elements consisting GAs Individual (chromosome): feasible solution in an optimization problem Population Set of individuals Should be maintained in each generation Elements consisting GAs:  Elements consisting GAs Genetic operators. (crossover, mutation…) Define the fitness function. The fitness function takes a single chromosome as input and returns a measure of the goodness of the solution represented by the chromosome. Genetic Representation:  Genetic Representation The most important starting point to develop a genetic algorithm Each gene has its special meaning Based on this representation, we can define fitness evaluation function, crossover operator, mutation operator. Genetic Representation (Cont.):  Genetic Representation (Cont.) Examples 1 Gene Allele value Genetic Representation (Cont.):  Genetic Representation (Cont.) Examples 2 ( In clustering problem) Each chromosome represents a set of clusters; each gene represents an object; each allele value represents a cluster. Genes with the same allele value are in the same cluster. 1 2 1 4 3 5 5 A B C D E F G Crossover:  Crossover Exchange features of two individuals to produce two offspring (children) Selected mates may have good properties to survive in next generations So, we can expect that exchanging features may produce other good individuals Crossover (cont.):  Crossover (cont.) Single-point Crossover Two-point Crossover Uniform Crossover 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Crossover template Mutation:  Mutation Usually change a single bit in a bit string This operator should happen with very low probability. Mutation point (random) Typical Procedures:  Typical Procedures Crossover mates are probabilistically selected based on their fitness value. Crossover point randomly selected old generation new generation Mutation point (random) Probabilistically select individuals How to apply GA on a clustering problem:  Preparing the chromosomes Defining genetic operators Fusion: takes two unique allele values and combines them into a single allele value, combining two clusters into one. Fission: takes a single allele value and gives it a different random allele value, breaking a cluster apart. Defining fitness functions How to apply GA on a clustering problem Example: (Cont.):  Example: (Cont.) Crossover Mutation Fusion Fission Old generation New generation Select the chromosomes according to the fitness function. Finally…:  Finally…

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