Published on April 5, 2014
TISSUE ENGINEERING:-- Technology that will Save US All BY ANWESHA BANERJEE 6TH SEM BIOTECHNOLOGY
TISSUE ENGINEERING:- The definition of tissue engineering is "an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ“. The use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physico-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. In other words Tissue Engineering is using a persons cells to create a new artificial fully alive tissue or organ that can replace or improve/heal the old one in the body.
GOALS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING:-- Save lives Replace a structure with a completely living structure Improve or replace tissues such as: Tissue Skin Muscle Bone Improve or replace organs such as: Heart Kidney Liver
IMPORTANCE OF TISSUE ENGINEERING:- Supply of donor organs cannot keep up with demand. Other available therapies such as surgical reconstruction, drug therapy, synthetic prostheses, and medical devices aren’t always successful. It will eliminate any risk of organ rejection because the new organ would be made from the person’s own tissue. It repairs tissues, organs, and bones successfully. Victims of organ/tissue defects will not have to suffer.
PROS & CONS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING:-- Help a person conquer a disease or illness Person will go through fewer surgeries No chance of rejection People would not have to wait for an organ donor People would not have to donate their organs after they die This technology could lead to even greater technologies in the future Permanent solution Medicine researchers face many difficulties in constructing suitable scaffolds It takes a lot of research and understanding of each organ and tissue Ethical issues Cells have to stay alive inside the body and continue to function which is difficult for researchers to discover for complex organs
STEPS IN TISSUE ENGINEERING:-- STEP1:- ISOLATION OF CELLS(TOTIPOTENT ) STEP 2:- GROWING CELLS INTO NEW TISSUES. STEP 3:- IMPLANTING NEW TISSUE INTO THE BODY
PROCESS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING:- GET TISSUE SAMPLE (CELLS) FROM THE BODY Patients own cells Researches have to break tissue apart using, enzymes that digest the extracellular material that normally holds cells together Cells need structure, nutrients, and oxygen Scaffold Cells NEED a scaffold. For tissue regeneration Scaffold: gives cells structure on which they need to grow, without them cells are free floating, cannot connect with each other, communicate or form tissue. Scaffold is biocompatible and biodegradable Scaffolds provide the structure that cells need for a certain period of time until they have formed enough tissue to have their own structure. Scaffold dissolves once structure of cells is formed. THE FINAL PROCESS IS TO IMPLANT THE REGENARATED TISSUE INTO THE BODY OF THE PATIENT.
A SCAFFOLD:- THE STRUCTURAL UNIT IN T.E. Scaffolds are structures that are manufactured for the sole purpose of allowing cells to grow. Key Elements of Scaffolds and cell development- Structures that are able to support 3-D cell structures Allow for cell attachment, migration and growth Enable diffusion of cell nutrients Allow the manipulation of cells to form as correctly shaped tissue
PRODUCTION OF SCAFFOLD:- Nano –fibre self-- Assembly. Gas – foaming. CAD/CAM technologies. Electro -- spinning
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND TISSUE ENGINEERING:- The use of biotechnology in tissue engineering is of utmost importance since without it the regeneration of tissue will be impossible By the techniques in biotechnology through a scaffold and using stem cells tissue engineering is possible . There are two kinds of tissue engineering processes (i)in vitro &(ii)in vivo. There are three strategies to engineer tissues:- Conductive Inductive Cell transplantation approaches
RESULTS OF TISSUE ENGINEERING:- Bioengineered Tissue Implants Regenerate Damaged Knee Cartilage ScienceDaily(July 31, 2012) Cartilage was removed from 23 patients with an average age of 36 years. After growing the cells in culture for 14 days, the researchers seeded them onto scaffolds made of esterified hyaluronic acid, grew them for another 14 days on the scaffolds, and then implanted them into the injured knees of the study patients. Cartilage regeneration was seen in ten of 23 patients, including in some patients with pre-existing early osteoarthritis of the knee secondary to traumatic injury. Maturation of the implanted, tissue- engineered cartilage was evident as early as 11 months after implantation.
FUTURE OF THIS TECHNOLOGY In the future, this technology will continue to advance. More and more complex organs will be able to be created. Eventually whole body parts and perhaps whole bodies me be possible to create with this technology.. Future may hold key to success for the ending of need for ever-increasing demand donor organs & grafts.
CONCLUSION:-- With the further research and engineering, the manufacturing of body parts is becoming more and more a possibility. From this the possibility of increasing life longevity will become more apparent as we engineer new ways to replace organs that are failing.
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