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Tissue Engineering: A New Era in Dentistry

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Information about Tissue Engineering: A New Era in Dentistry
Health & Medicine

Published on February 26, 2014

Author: Fatima_A

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Scientific poster presented at the 1st annual IADSR conference in Lahore, 2011.
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Tissue Engineering: A New Era in Dentistry Asim W., Fatima A. A., Sara I., M.A. Fareed FMH C M&D Tissue Engineering is the application of the principles and methods of engineering and the life sciences toward the fundamental understanding of structure / function relationships in normal and pathological mammalian tissues and the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain, or improve functions.[1] Stem cells capable of self-renewal are isolated via ultrafiltration or centrifugation of the source tissue, seeded on to a scaffold, and combined in a bioreactor along with growth factors. The cell culture is grown till the tissue or organ required has been formed; the successfully regenerated structure is then implanted into the body.[2] Scaffold Dental stem cells A scaffold is an artificial structure capable of supporting 3-D Tissue Formation. 1. Natural or Synthetic Polymers, commonly Polyglycolic Acid or Polylactic Acid.[4] 2. Allow cell movement, growth factor delivery, nutrient diffusion. 3. Often biodegradable. Stem cells are undifferentiated totipotent, pluripotent or multipotent cells.[3] 1) Dental mesenchymal cells: a) Dental pulp SCs b) Periodontal ligament SCs c) Dental follicle SCs d) Human exfoliated deciduous teeth SCs 2) Dental epithelial SCs Growth Factors Bioreactor Growth Factors are regulatory substances that stimulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Current growth factor release technologies[5]: 1. Fibrin Glue 2. Emdogain® 3. Gem21S® 4.INFUSE® Bone Graft 5.OP-1® Implant A bioreactor is an engineered or manufactured device that supports a biologically active environment. Discussion Although prosthetic implants already exist to replace lost dental structures, it is expected the implant failure rate will increase dramatically with an increase in high-risk operations and the entry of improperly trained surgeons into the field.[6] Additionally, the success rate of using dental materials to repair teeth in which the pulp has been exposed is very low, limiting the clinician to either pulpotomy or extraction as the only viable treatment options.[7] Ethical issues arise concerning the source of cells (patient’s own vs. donated cells) and the type (adult-donor vs. fetal cells). In addition, on what basis will it be decided who receives these new tissue therapies?[8] Future Prospects Tissue engineering is applied to nearly all types of tissues related to the oral cavity, including bone, cartilage, skin and oral mucosa, dentin and dental pulp, and salivary glands. According to many researchers, test-tube teeth may become completely engineered organs![6] [1]. Tahoe [2]. Biomaterials, Artificial Organs and Tissue Engineering” by A.E. Bishop and L.D.K Buttery [3] Y.H. Huang at al, “Dental Stem Cells & Tooth Banking for Regenerative Medicine”, 2010. [4]. Liu et al, “Design & Development of Three Dimensional Scaffolds”, 2007. [5]. F-M Chen et al, “New Insights into & Novel Applications of Release Technology for Periodontal Reconstructive Therapies ”, 2010 [6]. Earthman et al, “Reconstructive Materials & Bone Tissue Engineering in Implant Dentistry”, 2006. [7]. “Regenerative Medicine of Skin, Hair, Dental Tissues and Cornea” [8]. Kaigler et al, “Tissue Engineering’s Impact on Dentistry”, 2001

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