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Time space disjuncture

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Information about Time space disjuncture
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Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Carolina

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Theoretical approach 4: Theory on time/space disjuncture:  Theoretical approach 4: Theory on time/space disjuncture MEVIT 3220/ 4220 Fall 2007 Media and Globalization Sarah Chiumbu - 23 November 2007 This lecture:  This lecture The last in the series of the four Theoretical approaches 1 Structuration theory 2 Network society theory / Information society theory 3 Theory on global flows of communication 4 Theory on time/space disjuncture Structure of the lecture:  Structure of the lecture Theoretical Debates Mediated Globalisation Time, Place and Space Channels of mediation: Television Internet Examples from the curriculum Revisiting the theory of structuration:  Revisiting the theory of structuration Anthony Giddens Structure / Agency Agents and structure are not independent of each other (dualism) But dependent upon each other (duality) Structure is not external to individuals The duality of structure is always the main grounding of continuities in social reproduction across time-space. Picture from Wikipedia From Wikipedia:  From Wikipedia The structuration approach does not focus on the individual actor or societal totality "but social practices ordered across space and time". Its proponents adopt this balanced position, attempting to treat influences of structure (which inherently includes culture) and agency equally. Conceptualising Time-Space:  Conceptualising Time-Space Time-Space distaciation (Giddens, 1990) The interlacing of social relations “at distance” with local contextualities Social relationships are becoming stretched across great distances Time-Space compression (Harvey, 1990) Involves the shortening of time and shrinking of space: the time to do things is reduced Social relationships become more intense and robust Harvey, D (1990) The Condition of Postemodernity: An Inquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. The Globalising of Modernity:  The Globalising of Modernity ”Modernity is inherently globalising”. Since social life is ordered across space and time, the problematic of space-time distanciation is key to modernity and globalisation. The complex relations between local involvements and interaction across distance. Relations between local and distant social forms are ’stretched’. Globalisation refers essentially to that stretching process. Local transformations are part of globalisation. Giddens: The Consequences of Modernity pp. 63-65 Globalisation:  Globalisation Anthony Giddens defines globalisation as: ”the intensification of world-wide social relations, whic link distant localities in such as way that local happenings are shaped by events occuring many miles away and vice versa” (Giddens, 1990: 4) Giddens does not tell us how these happenings are shaped, but implicitly he points out to the role of the media in globalisation - a mediated reality. John B. Thompson (1995):  John B. Thompson (1995) An aspect of technical media is that they allow for some degree of space-time distanciation: ”Any process of symbolic exchange generally involves the detachment of a symbolic form from its context of production: it is distanced from this context, both spatially and temporally, and re-embedded in new contexts which may be located at different times and places” (p. 21). Thompson ...:  Thompson ... ”All forms of communication involve some degree of space-time distanciation - but the extent of distanciation varies greatly” (p. 21) > Globalisation Mass communication extends the availability of symbolic forms in space and time (p. 30). > Mediated interaction > Mediated experience Mediated Globalisation:  Mediated Globalisation A focus on “mediation” means that we increasingly experience globalisation through the media (Rantanen, 2005) Globalisation through the media transforms: People´s social relations Forms of interaction People´s experience Mediated Globalisation:  Mediated Globalisation Mediated globalisation refers to the reality that one of the salient features of globalisation today is that it takes place increasingly through the media and communications. Thus Rantanen (2005:8) defines globalisation as: “ a process in which worldwide economic, political and cultural and socialrelations have become increasingly mediated across time and space” “ it is too simple to think that the media just connects people; rather they mediate, which is a far more complex process that involves individuals and their practices” (Rantanen, 2005:11) Hjarvard: A Mediated World. Globalisation and the Role of Media:  Hjarvard: A Mediated World. Globalisation and the Role of Media Sociological conceptions of modernity (esp. Giddens) with detachment from time and space, and – disembedding: ’lifting out’ of social relations from local contexts – re-embedding: creation of new, less personal social networks Globalisation represents a radicalized form of modernity (an immanent consequence of modernity) The scope make globalisation a new social order. Hjarvard on the role of media in globalisation:  Hjarvard on the role of media in globalisation Media as channels of communication: – the media are prerequisites for action from a distance – results in mobility and disembedding of social acts – coordination of action over time and space Media as messengers: – the consequence is a heightend reflexivity Media as social infrastructure: – the media profoundly influence the global infrastructure – the media mold the ways in which interaction takes place Time, Place and Space:  Time, Place and Space Mediated globalisation changes our sense of time, place and space Time, place and space are social constructs and are not natural and stagnate. Time, Place and Space:  Time, Place and Space Place and Media In pre-modern times, time and place was in one place - no knowledge of anything beyond one´s experience. Place - physical settings of social activity as situated geographically Place helps us form our identities New forms of media encourage placelessness Media leads to nearly dissociation of phyisical place and “social place” Time, Place and Space:  Time, Place and Space Time and Media: Calendars and mechanical clocks Introduction of time-zones Scheduling (e.g. Trains, news) Telegraph Electronic media (e.g. Radio, TV and Internet) have created new concept of time. Time, Place and Space:  Time, Place and Space Space and Media Space and place are related, but space is more abstract (Malls, Supermarkets, Community Halls) Spaces are flexible and can be constructed in a symbolic way Media and new technologies are bringing time, place and space closer to each other. Media transforms place and space: connecting places with each other and shortening distance through them Creating new spaces within and outside places where former rules and norms dop not hold Channels of Mediation:  Channels of Mediation Television News Time no longer relevant with 24-hour news (e.g. BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera, Online news). Place becoming less important as we experience events in distant places in real time (Football World matches, funeral of Princess Diana, Iraq War, Tsunami, etc) New spaces are created as we are able to watch news in airports, buses, mobile phones etc Channels of Mediation:  Channels of Mediation New Media ( Internet / Mobile Phones) Time no longer important (internet shopping anytime of the day) emails cut down time as messages are received instantly Place no longer important (wireless connections). We can send email from anywhere (under a tree, on the train etc) New spaces are created (MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and other chat rooms) Mobile phones have changed social interaction (SMS, MMS) Examples from the literature:  Examples from the literature Kirsten Frandsen: Globalisation and Localisation TV coverage of the Olympic Games in Sydney 2000. Constant interplay between forces of globalisation and localisation Decisions and productions simultaneously take place on – global level – European/regional level – local/national level Globalisation is expressed by various forms of localisation of the global event. Examples from the literature:  Examples from the literature Kevin Robins: Beyond Imagined Community Article concerned with cultural and media practices of the Turkish-speaking communities in London. Proposes the use of “transnationalism” as opposed to “diasporic” and “imagined community”. Questions the utility of the use of “identity:”, “community” and “nation” when discussing consequences of satellite television. No such thing as “Turkish” culture or behaviour in a transnational setting –Turks in Europe involved in a complex process of negotiation Kevin Robins makes us think differently on issues of the so-called “diasporic media”, “imagined community” and identity” and effects of global flows of communication. Announcements...:  Announcements... MEVIT 4220 - compiled reading list for term papers to be submitted by Friday (23 November). Next week lecture: summing up, exams and term papers.

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