TIDAL ENERGY - ENERGÍA DE LAS MAREAS

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Information about TIDAL ENERGY - ENERGÍA DE LAS MAREAS
Environment

Published on July 22, 2014

Author: alanemilio

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Tidal Energy (Power) is that one transported by the tides currents in the ocean in form of mechanical energy.

The objective of this presentation is to show the basic concepts and the different ways it can be converted from sea energy to electric energy.

TIDAL POWER ALAN E. SUÁREZ Energy and Environmental Processes Processi per l’Energia e l’Ambiente (PEA) A.A. 2013/2014

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 2 • To show the sea energy presented in the tides. • To show how is possible to take advantage of this energy to convert it in another useful kind of energy (work). • To show the history in the world of development of this transformation. • To show the currents plants and projects using tidal energy. • To show the pros and contras of this renewable energy. • To show some ideas about new projects using tidal energy, be it for improve the current technology or for creating new ways to take advantage of or new uses. The aim of this presentation is: SCOPE

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 3 • Tidal Energy (or Power) is the energy transported by the tides currents in the ocean in form of mechanical energy. • It can be converted into a useful forms of power (energy), mainly electricity generation. What is Tidal energy? INTRODUCTION

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 4INTRODUCTION What is the difference between Waves and Tides? • Tide is the cyclic rise and fall of sea level, caused by the gravitational pulls of the sun and moon. • Ocean Wave (or Wind Wave) is an surface wave generated by local wind. Earth land masses also move because of the Moon and Sun pulls, but it’s not easily to see

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 5 Percentage for Total World Energy Consumption – Tidal Energy INTRODUCTION < 0,00016% 2009 2010 16,7% x 0,001% = 0,00017 % 2011 19% x 0,001% = 0,00019 %

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 6 • Currently: 250 MW approx. • Potential in ocean currents to produce ca. 450 TW  1,8 million times current production  0,00019% x 1 800 000 = 342% of current total world energy consumption! • But, statistics… Total World Tidal Energy Production INTRODUCTION Source: Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2013, http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/appa.pdf http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/tbla17.pdf http://www.forbes.com

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 7FUNDAMENTALS What causes the tides? • Moon gravitational pulls • Sun gravitational pulls • Sun-Moon position relative to the earth

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 8 • Sea level rises over several hours, covering the intertidal zone (flood tide). • The water rises to its highest level, reaching high tide, and stopping (slack tidal; slack water). • Sea level falls over several hours, revealing the intertidal zone (ebb tide). • The water stops falling, reaching low tide, and stopping (slack tidal; slack water). THESE MOVEMENTS GENERATE CONSTANT TIDAL STREAMS, WITH A HIGH AMOUNT OF ENERGY Tide changes FUNDAMENTALS

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 9FUNDAMENTALS What influences tide behavior? • Offshore and near-shore deep (bathymetry) • Coastlines shape • Declination of the Earth’s orbit • Declination of the Moon’s orbit • Presence of land masses • Speed of the Earth’s rotation (inertia) • Coriolis effect on the tide flow • Frictional forces

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 10 • Diurnal tides (daily tides): • 1 high tide – 1 low tide each tidal day • Unusal (e.g. Gulf of Mexico) • Semidiurnal tides (semidaily tides): • 2 high tides – 2 low tides each tidal day • Equal tides during each period • Period of 12 hrs and 24.5 minutes (e.g. Moon passing through equator) • Mixed tides: • 2 high tides – 2 low tides each tidal day • Unequal tides during each period Most common type FUNDAMENTALS Tides classification I

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 11 • Spring tides: Both Sun and Moon pulls in the same line (syzygy) • Neap tides: Moon in quadrature respect to the sun (90°) • Metereological tides (storm surges): • Wind and barometric pressure changes • Shallow seas and near coasts. FUNDAMENTALS Tides classification II

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 12FUNDAMENTALS Tides datum • Reference level • Vertical datum • Reference plane • MLW Spring generally taken as reference • Tides can also vary with the meterological conditions • Winds • Pressure

PEA_WAVE AND TIDAL ENERGY 13 • One single tidal constituent represents just one effect (M2: Moon pull; S2: Sun pull, etc.) • h t =

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