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Thurs1415.Inequality.Jacobsen

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Information about Thurs1415.Inequality.Jacobsen

Published on July 3, 2008

Author: TCC08

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Transportation Inequality and Public Health
Moderator: TBD
* Peter L. Jacobsen, Consulting Engineer, Sacramento, California
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Peter Jacobsen Towards Carfree Cities VIII Rethinking Mobility, Rediscovering Proximity Portland, June 18, 2008 Traffic Danger and physical activity: explaining the links – promoting action

Measuring traffic danger Fear is perceived, but it is reality; Hard to measure perceptions; Hard to separate crime and traffic fear (and they are linked); Injury data only provide part of the picture; Statistics tend to lack denominators, especially exposure denominators.

Fear is perceived, but it is reality;

Hard to measure perceptions;

Hard to separate crime and traffic fear (and they are linked);

Injury data only provide part of the picture;

Statistics tend to lack denominators, especially exposure denominators.

Traffic danger and physical activity Four main sources of evidence for links between traffic danger and physical activity: Surveys Direct evidence Avoidance Responses to interventions

Four main sources of evidence for links between traffic danger and physical activity:

Surveys

Direct evidence

Avoidance

Responses to interventions

Surveys Children 89% parents worry about traffic 50% of parents believe a child will be hit 25% of parents believe their child will be hit Adults Fear of traffic is the most commonly given reason for not cycling Elderly Traffic most common concern People living with heavy traffic have triple functional loss in lower extremities A “Pedestrian” entrance to Villa Borghese Park, Rome

Children

89% parents worry about traffic

50% of parents believe a child will be hit

25% of parents believe their child will be hit

Adults

Fear of traffic is the most commonly given reason for not cycling

Elderly

Traffic most common concern

People living with heavy traffic have triple functional loss in lower extremities

Direct evidence Traffic engineering literature explicitly recognizes the barrier effect of traffic; Crosswalks; Barrier measured by number of people crossing; Automobile neighborhoods have less walking; More people walk and bicycle where safer;

Traffic engineering literature explicitly recognizes the barrier effect of traffic;

Crosswalks;

Barrier measured by number of people crossing;

Automobile neighborhoods have less walking;

More people walk and bicycle where safer;

Avoidance People avoid walking or bicycling along dangerous streets People tend to cross at crosswalks (esp. young and old) More bike lanes = more cyclists Unless it is perceived as safe, more men than women will ride bicycles

People avoid walking or bicycling along dangerous streets

People tend to cross at crosswalks (esp. young and old)

More bike lanes = more cyclists

Unless it is perceived as safe, more men than women will ride bicycles

Responses to interventions Traffic calming increases walking and bicycling The benefits of area-wide speed and traffic management can exceed costs by a factor of 9.7 Germany, The Netherlands, and Finland have increased bicycling In Finland, the net benefits of doubling cycling was estimated to exceed the costs by €100-200 million/year through reductions in injuries and others health effects Installing bike lanes increases bicycling and decreases injuries 35% reduction in deaths among cyclists in Denmark following segregated bicycle lanes alongside urban roads

Traffic calming increases walking and bicycling

The benefits of area-wide speed and traffic management can exceed costs by a factor of 9.7

Germany, The Netherlands, and Finland have increased bicycling

In Finland, the net benefits of doubling cycling was estimated to exceed the costs by €100-200 million/year through reductions in injuries and others health effects

Installing bike lanes increases bicycling and decreases injuries

35% reduction in deaths among cyclists in Denmark following segregated bicycle lanes alongside urban roads

The scheme achieved, compared to pre-charging time: - 18 % total volume of traffic + 32 % in cycled km Reduced number of bicycles involved in crashes Responses to interventions: The London Congestion Charge Accident involvement by vehicle type within the charging zone, 0700 to 1900, March to November, 2001 to 2004. Source: Congestion Charging: Third Annual Monitoring Report, April 2005

The scheme achieved, compared to pre-charging time:

- 18 % total volume of traffic

+ 32 % in cycled km

Reduced number of bicycles involved in crashes

Safety in numbers Source : Jacobsen Peter L: Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling Injury Prevention. 2003, 9: 205-209.

Policy implications Urgent need for making physical activity part of daily life; Cost-effective measures are available to reduce fear, remove barriers and increase activity; Major challenge to change status quo: Partner with injury prevention, traffic management, environmental, urban developers, education; Document the effectiveness of interventions and their costs; Improve the quantification and economic valuation of the health benefit of more activity; Learn from successes and failures.

Urgent need for making physical activity part of daily life;

Cost-effective measures are available to reduce fear, remove barriers and increase activity;

Major challenge to change status quo:

Partner with injury prevention, traffic management, environmental, urban developers, education;

Document the effectiveness of interventions and their costs;

Improve the quantification and economic valuation of the health benefit of more activity;

Learn from successes and failures.

THANKS! Paris, France Rome, Italy Reykjavik, Iceland London, UK

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