Thumbrules

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Published on February 15, 2009

Author: ajwollen

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Energy Thumbrules for Industrial Sites to Save Money

Useful Rules of Thumb for Energy Conservation and Waste Minimization Assumptions: Electricity: $0.05 / kWh Natural Gas: $0.350 / ccf Manhours: 2,000 hours / year/ shift High Pressure Steam Leaks (125 psig) = $150 to $500 / leak / shift/ year Low Pressure Steam Leaks (15 psig) = $30 to $110 / leak / shift/ year Compressed Air Leaks (100 psig) = $30 to $90 / leak / shift / year Submetering an Evaporative Cooling Tower can result in sewage treatment savings Assume 1% water loss to evaporation $9 / ton / shift / year Based on size of tower in tons $3 / gpm / shift/ year Based on gpm of water through tower Typical Motor Operating Cost = $62 / hp / shift / year High Pressure Compressed Air System Reduction Assume 100 psig system 10 psi compressor discharge reduction = 5 % reduction in energy consumption Cost of heat lost through hot, uninsulated pipes 25 psig steam: $375 / 100 feet / shift / year 50 psig steam: $430 / 100 feet / shift / year 75 psig steam: $480 / 100 feet / shift / year 100 psig steam: $515 / 100 feet / shift / year Installing Insulation can reduce 90% heat loss on a hot, uninsulated surface Average Heating and Cooling Costs Combustion Efficiency of typical Boiler or Furnace is 80% Upgrading to an energy efficient motor can result in savings of about 5% over the operating costs of a standard motor. A typical standard motor has an efficiency of 90%. Benefit of Fuel Switching: Switching from electric heat to natural gas or #2 fuel oil can reduce heating costs by 78%. (1996) Cost Saving for Demand Reduction (or Load Shifting) Move Operating Shift to Off-peak times: $75 / hp / year Move “Other Electric Equipment” to Off-Peak: $120 / kW / year Average Solid Waste Costs $30 / cubic yard for municipal solid waste Landfill tipping fees are $45 to $64 / ton $0.24 $0.52 Texas $0.35 $0.30 Tennessee $0.26 $0.12 Michigan Comfort Heating Costs (per ft 2 /year) Comfort Cooling Costs (per ft 2 / year)

High Pressure Steam Leaks (125 psig) = $150 to $500 / leak / shift/ year

Low Pressure Steam Leaks (15 psig) = $30 to $110 / leak / shift/ year

Compressed Air Leaks (100 psig) = $30 to $90 / leak / shift / year

Submetering an Evaporative Cooling Tower can result in sewage treatment savings

Assume 1% water loss to evaporation

$9 / ton / shift / year Based on size of tower in tons

$3 / gpm / shift/ year Based on gpm of water through tower

Typical Motor Operating Cost = $62 / hp / shift / year

High Pressure Compressed Air System Reduction

Assume 100 psig system

10 psi compressor discharge reduction = 5 % reduction in energy consumption

Cost of heat lost through hot, uninsulated pipes

25 psig steam: $375 / 100 feet / shift / year

50 psig steam: $430 / 100 feet / shift / year

75 psig steam: $480 / 100 feet / shift / year

100 psig steam: $515 / 100 feet / shift / year

Installing Insulation can reduce 90% heat loss on a hot, uninsulated surface

Average Heating and Cooling Costs

Combustion Efficiency of typical Boiler or Furnace is 80%

Upgrading to an energy efficient motor can result in savings of about 5% over the operating costs of a standard motor. A typical standard motor has an efficiency of 90%.

Benefit of Fuel Switching:

Switching from electric heat to natural gas or #2 fuel oil can reduce heating costs by 78%. (1996)

Cost Saving for Demand Reduction (or Load Shifting)

Move Operating Shift to Off-peak times: $75 / hp / year

Move “Other Electric Equipment” to Off-Peak: $120 / kW / year

Average Solid Waste Costs

$30 / cubic yard for municipal solid waste

Landfill tipping fees are $45 to $64 / ton

This fact sheet was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP.) Neither the PaDEP, these participants nor the organizations listed herein, nor any person on behalf of any of the organizations mentioned herein: makes any warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this document or that such use may not infringe privately owned rights; or assumes any liability with respect to the use of, or damages resulting from the use of, any information, apparatus, method or process disclosed in this document Reference : Office of Industrial Productivity & Energy Assessment, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, “Useful Rules of Thumb for Energy Conservation and Waste Minimization,” July 9, 1996 Typical Water Costs Total Cost = $4.00 to $5.00 / ccf Water Consumption = $2.50 / ccf Sewer Charge = $2.00 / ccf Note: 1 ccf = 100 cubic feet Minimum Ventilation Requirements By size: 0.1 to 0.25 cfm / ft 2 By person: 5 – 15 cfm / person Paint Transfer Efficiencies Most paint application wastes are caused by either paint overspray or the paint not reaching the target. The amount of overspray results from the design and operation of the system used. The efficiency of some of the systems are as follows: 15. Average Cost of Lighting 16. Average Disposal Costs 40 450 45.0 400W Mercury Vapor 63 455 45.5 400W Metal Halide 97 465 46.5 400W High Press. Sodium 100 80 8.0 8-ft. High Output E.E. Flour (T8) w/ Elec. Ballast 65 129 12.9 8-ft. High Output Flour (t12) w/ Magnetic Ballast 102 53 5.3 8-ft. E. E. Flour. (T8) w/ Elec. Ballast 70 88 8.8 8-ft Std. Flour. (T12) w/ Magnetic Ballast 83 31 3.1 4-ft. E. E. Flour (T8) w/ Elec. Ballast 58 46 4.6 4-ft Std. Flour. (T12) w/ Magnetic Ballast Light Output (Lumens / Watt) Bulb Wattage Annual Cost ($ / bulb / shift / year Lighting Type 165 100 250 550 250 550 Incineration (liquid) Landfill (Non-hazardous) Landfill (Hazardous) Incinerations (Sludges, Greases, Debris and Solids) Rags and Debris (Uncompacted) Corrosives Disposal Cost ($ / 55 gal. drum) Disposal Substance 30 – 60 65 – 75 65 – 85 85 – 95 90 – 99 90 - 98 Conventional air atomized spray Conventional pressure ataomized spray Electrostatic air atomized spray Electrostatic centrifugal atomized spary Powder Coating Roller / Flow Coating Transfer Efficiency (%) Painting Method

Typical Water Costs

Total Cost = $4.00 to $5.00 / ccf

Water Consumption = $2.50 / ccf

Sewer Charge = $2.00 / ccf

Note: 1 ccf = 100 cubic feet

Minimum Ventilation Requirements

By size: 0.1 to 0.25 cfm / ft 2

By person: 5 – 15 cfm / person

Paint Transfer Efficiencies

Most paint application wastes are caused by either paint overspray or the paint not reaching the target. The amount of overspray results from the design and operation of the system used. The efficiency of some of the systems are as follows:

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