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ThreeGorgesDam

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Information about ThreeGorgesDam
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Published on March 19, 2008

Author: Carla

Source: authorstream.com

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The Three Gorges Dam:  The Three Gorges Dam By: David Yang, Jesse Cho, Andrew Kim Table of Contents:  Table of Contents What is Three Gorges Positive Effects Negative Effects Conclusion Where Is It Being Built:  Where Is It Being Built Sandouping,Yichang Hubei province Being built on Yangtze River, the world's third largest river China -192 km in length What is Three gorges dam:  What is Three gorges dam Three Gorges Dam is a major dam that is being built in China China's Three Gorges Project is the largest water conservation project in the world. What is the purpose?:  What is the purpose? The main construction targets of the Three Gorges Project are improving control flood building power generator improving navigation. How much & long is it going to take??:  How much & long is it going to take?? The building of the dam started in 1992 and is estimated to end by year 2009 The estimated cost of the dam will be about US$24.65 billion How Three Gorges dam came about:  How Three Gorges dam came about During the more than 2,000 years between the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) and the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), floods occurred on the Yangtze River nearly once every ten years. During the last 300 years, there were 60 severe floods Floods have been a persistent problem for residents and businesses along the Yangtze and for the Chinese government. Slide8:  In 1912, Dr. Sun Yat-sen, pioneer of the Chinese democratic revolution, first proposed that a Yangtze Three Gorges dam Project be constructed But because of historic reasons and lack of resources, the development of the project remained only a dream. Slide9:  Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the project was back on the agenda. On April 3, 1992, the National People’s Congress approved the construction of the project Positive Effects:  Positive Effects Navigation Power generator Flood control Environment Effects on people Cost Navigation:  Navigation the project, which involves the installation of ship locks, which would increase river shipping from 10 million to 50 million tons annually, with transportation costs cut by 30 to 37 percent. Shipping will become faster, cheaper and safer as the rapid waters are tamed and ship locks are installed Navigation:  Navigation Power generator:  Power generator A major justification for the dam is the power it will generate from its 26 700-megawatt turbine generators which equals the energy produced by 18 nuclear plants or the burning of 40 million tons of coal. Power Generator :  Power Generator When power generator is completed The annual power generation is estimated to average 84.68 billion kilowatt hours (KWH), China’s per capita energy consumption is only one-third of the world average, and 60 million rural dwellers now lack electricity Power Generator:  Power Generator Power (electricity) is to be sent through transmission lines mostly to eastern and central China Mainly to solve energy shortages in eastern and central China, where economic development is being held back Construction of the dam:  Construction of the dam Flood control:  Flood control The huge flood storage capacity will lessen the frequency of major floods. The risk that the dam will increase flooding is remote. Environment :  Environment Hydroelectric power from the dam’s power generator is cleaner than coal burning and safer than nuclear plants, and steps will be taken to protect the environment When compared to coal-burning facilities of a similar size, the Three Gorges Plant can reduce large amount of carbon dioxide emissions Cost:  Cost Building the dam will cost a lot, however in the long run the electricity, that the dam will provide will pay for itself. Climate changes after the construction of the dam :  Climate changes after the construction of the dam Experts found that construction of the reservoir may help winter become warmer and summer cooler in the area. Climate:  Climate monthly average temperature will rise by 0.3 to one degree centigrade in winter and spring, while falling by 0.9 to 1.2 degrees centigrade in summer. Which can benefit the growth of citrus fruits Positive effects on people:  Positive effects on people Due to people relocating themselves downstream because of the Dam construction, about 15 million people living downstream would be improved from the reduction of floods from the extra electricity supply, which is expected to increase the local economy, providing more jobs and improving the standard of living. Negative effects:  Negative effects on people villages economy Environment Resettlement :  Resettlement The dam will affect 365 townships in 21 counties, cities or districts in Sichuan and Hubei provinces. Some 844,000 people are scheduled for resettlement currently, however with unpredictable factors most likely raising the figure to 1.2 million people. . Resettlement:  Resettlement The Three Gorges Reservoir will flood 31,000 hectares of farmland, and will require the relocation of 1,599 industrial and mining enterprises, as well as power transmission and telecommunications facilities, harbors, small and medium-sized hydro-electric power plants, roads and pumping stations. Resettlement 2:  Resettlement 2 The Three Gorges Project will relocate 1.2 million residents in the 1,084 sq km-reservoir area, since the reservoir is expected to flood more than 630 sq km of land behind the Three Gorges Dam Environment:  Environment Water pollution and deforestation will increase, the coastline will be eroded and the altered ecosystem will further endanger many species Some critics believe that the Yangtze will add 530 million tons of silt into the reservoir on average per year and it will soon be useless in preventing floods. Farmland:  Farmland Farmland in Fengjie County. 74,000 acres of precious farmland such as this will be flooded by the construction of Three gorges dam. Endangered species:  Endangered species Endangered Yangtze Baiji River Dolphin. water released from the dam will scour the riverbed and wash the sand beaches and islands where Baiji now feed and reproduce Habitat of the Baiji river dolphin will be destroyed Towns in danger:  Towns in danger Located on the eastern bank of the Daning River, the town of Dachang Dachang is one of 326 towns that are in danger of being flooded by the Three Gorges reservoir. Pollution:  Pollution As more factories are relocated to the edge of the reservoir. water pollution would increase as the power of the Yangtze, which helps flush pollutants dumped by the factories on the riverbanks, is reduced Slide32:  Everything below the 175-metre marker on the hillside will be flooded by the Three Gorges reservoir. Slide33:  Wanxian district, Chongqing municipality The whole of the lower section will be flooded by the Three Gorges reservoir. Historical sites and ruins:  Historical sites and ruins The reservoir will flood many historical sites and ruin the legendary scenery of the gorges and the local tourism industry Cost :  Cost The dam will far exceed the official cost estimate, and the investment will be unrecoverable as cheaper power sources become available and lure away ratepayers Biggest problem:  Biggest problem will be sediment from up-river erosion; they will attempt to control this by periodic flushing and building sediment-catching dams upstream. Other facts:  Other facts It will provide drinking water for Beijing. 90% will be financed by China, 10% by foreign investors. Other Facts:  Other Facts It will be able to provide 18.2 billion watts or 15% of China’s electricity; 12 times the output of Niagara Falls. Model of Dam:  Model of Dam Fisheries:  Fisheries Consequences include change of habitats, a general transformation from rapid to slow moving waters and reduction in sediment, and soils being deprived replenishment of nutrients from sediments. Commercial fisheries will be affected (black, silver, grass and variegated carp breed) and fish are often killed in electric turbines of dams Archaeological Loss:  Archaeological Loss The region has been inhabited since Palaeolithic and has accumulated a wealth of archaeological sites remain. Although some, such as Zhang Fei Temple at Yungang, will be relocated (Zich, 1997), 800 sites of cultural relics will be destroyed (Internet 2). This will affect the tourism to the area Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems :  Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Dams reduce downstream water temperature and downstream water levels may be artificially raised at certain times of year. Most fish sensitive to water temperature and stage especially for breeding which may result in reductions or elimination of native species. The flooding of gorge to produce reservoir will drown habitats. Presently endangered species include Chinese Sturgeon and paddlefish, Yangtze dolphin, Chinese tiger, Chinese alligator, Giant Panda, and Siberian Crane will come under greater stress. Political motives:  Political motives Even though there is a lot of people who is against the dam construction, people wonder why the government continues the construction; conclusion seems to be that the primary motive is political The dam would be the world’s largest hydroelectric dam, which would confer prestige on China and confirm its technological prowess and the superiority of socialism. Conclusion:  Conclusion As u can see from this slide show there are some people who is against the building of the dam and some who aren’t However, People should work together to find a solution to end this conflict. Three Gorges Dam :  Three Gorges Dam

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