Published on September 23, 2014
1. THREE ACTION RESEARCH CYCLES: REASONS ENCOURAGE OR INHIBIT ASYNCHRONOUS ONLINE DISCUSSION PARTICIPATION LING SIEW WOEI1*, KOO AH CHOO2, LIM YAN PENG3 123MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF CREATIVE MULTIMEDIA, 63000 CYBERJAYA, MALAYSIA
2. Who I am. lecturer at a private university in Malaysia conducted lectures larger classes of 200 students Learning Management Systems (LMS)
3. Asynchronous Online Discussion AOD) can promote critical thinking at higher education (Chiu, 2009). nurtures critical thinking mind because it is an added-value that will benefit them in the workplace (Duangjan, 2014).
4. Issue Emphasis of extrinsic motivation Evidence Lecturers worried participation would be low if none was rewarded (Graham & Scarborough, 2001). 3 to 5%, increased to 10% 20% (Graham & Scarborough, 2001; Nandi, Hamilton, Chang & Balbo, 2012).
5. Pondering : What if reward was removed? Graham and Scarborough (2001) addressed reported that some students were not even affected with the marks thus made no endeavour to participate at all.
6. Intrinsic value Spitzer (1996, p. 45) believed that motivation “should be viewed as a central element of the instruction itself. The truth is that no matter how excellent any instructional program is, learning will be no greater than the student’s level of motivation”. Deci and Ryan (1999) reward, especially mark can be damaging to a student self-willingness. Husen and Postlethwaite (1994) learners who are intrinsically motivated, but rewarded extrinsically has devalued their intrinsic interest in reading
7. Aim seeks some understanding of the reasons that has encouraged or inhibited our students to participate in an AOD as a learning activity. Graham and Scarborough (2001), using marks to reward participation may not be interest them.
8. Research methodology open-source online discussion software, Simple Machines Forum (SMF). supplement the traditional lecture classroom with 2-hours of lectures, 2- hours of hands-on activities.
10. Cyclical process Action Research (AR) Spiral by Middlewood, Coleman and Lumby (1999) three aspects of self-determination dimension; structural, monitoring and involvement (Shroff & Vogel, 2009)
11. Respondents Purposeful sampling (n=198) 35 respondents in 2008, 29 respondents in 2009 134 respondents in 2010. Share commonality of area of study, age group and computer literacy.
12. Structural Dimension Learning environment and foundation will be set down to encourage the students to take part.
13. Autonomy Dimension Students will be encouraged to take charge of the environment.
14. Involvement Dimension Students will feel related and cared within the environment.
15. Structural Dimension Learning environment and foundation were set down to encourage the students to take part.
16. Factors encouraged participation: Structural
17. Reasons inhibited participation: Structural
18. Autonomy Dimension Students will be encouraged to take charge of the environment.
19. Factors encouraged participation: Autonomy
20. Reasons inhibited participation: Autonomy
21. Involvement Dimension Students will feel related and cared within the environment.
22. Factors encouraged participation: Involvment
23. Reasons inhibited participation: Involment
24. Reflection What have I observed from the experience and what does the data tells from the years.
25. Factors that encouraged and inhibited online participation from 2008 to 2010
26. Cycles provided rich data of respondents Revealed attitude and behavioural reasons such as busy and low confidence that prevented them from participating. Study in Autonomy dimension has revealed that some participants who had forgotten their account have participated in the AOD using their friends’ account.
27. Learning Motivation To provide extrinsic with caution, To begin with intrinsic, To boost with intrinsic, To rescue with extrinsic.
28. Inhibiting factors beyond motivation attitude, behaviour, choice, time, content and learning environment. Each of these factors addressed the motivation dimension highlighted by Shroff and Vogel (2009). Marks was only one of the minor reward busy schedule and priority in other courses Students who perceived they will gain benefit from the activity contributed in hope to gain in knowledge and information. Some students who liked to share their knowledge would also participate in the AOD.
29. Participatory Action Research may not be suitable to be adopted in this research context. The justification was PAR put equal responsibilities on both the participants and researcher because they contemplate the students as an expert due to their experience in the context of the study (Khanlou & Peter, 2005). Students as moderators failed Lack of skills and experience although knowledgeable Gained jealous and others remain quiet throughout the activity.
30. Summary marks does not ensure participation on AOD. contributing factor that had encouraged participation was the mainly due to their intrinsic reason of knowing the benefit and value of the task. attitude, behaviour, choice, time, content and learning environment are some inhibiting factors. highlight the benefits and caution factors to students
31. Concluding Action Research Longitudinal study Action learning Case study About us Reflective Passionate
CYCLE THREE - ACTION RESEARCH, RELEVANCE, ... research the shift in emphasis is the development of a ... Another set of data shows three girls learning how ...
The close relationship between knowledge acquisition and action; action research ... really two action research cycles ... three ‘registers ...
What Is Action Research? A succinct definition of action research appears ... These three different approaches to organizing for research serve three ...
... enhancing classroom practice and fulfilling educational ... action research process with the three ... cycles of the action research ...
... there have been many suggested models on which action research can ... Models Of Action Research And Cycles Involved ... Research And Cycles ...
... and activities to processes. There are three ... form of action research the ... below tries to assure both action and research outcomes as ...
What is Action Research? This chapter focuses on: • What action research is • The purposes of conducting action research ... reflective cycles of:
Kurt Lewin and the Origins of Action Research ... colleagues' reports and in their valuing of 'experimental' action research above the three other ...
Action research Rigour in action research ... the three key approaches ... research engagement was employed within a number of action research cycles to