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Third Day of Monsoon Stuff

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Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Bruno

Source: authorstream.com

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Kinematic Structure of the WAFR Monsoon:  Kinematic Structure of the WAFR Monsoon ATS 553 600mb NCEP Climatology Zonal Winds:  600mb NCEP Climatology Zonal Winds Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E :  Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E Atlantic Guinea Soudanian Sahelian Sahara Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E :  Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E Westerlies at 200mb: A weak subtropical jet? Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E :  Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E Easterlies at 200mb: Near the coastline TROPICAL EASTERLY JET (TEJ) TEJ=Equatorward Flank of Upper Level High Pressure Systems (Above Heat Lows):  TEJ=Equatorward Flank of Upper Level High Pressure Systems (Above Heat Lows) Streamlines at 200mb; colors are U winds at 200mb H H Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E :  Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E Easterlies at 600mb: Centered near 12°N AFRICAN EASTERLY JET (AEJ) Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E :  Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E Low level westerlies: Extend to about 20°N THE MONSOON WESTERLIES Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E :  Cross section of zonal winds along 0°E Low level easterlies: Centered near 27°N HARMATTAN Why is there an “African Easterly Jet”?:  Why is there an “African Easterly Jet”? Any time there is a change of wind speed with respect to height, you should be thinking “Thermal Wind Relationship”. Thermal Wind Relationship: U increases with height when T decreases to the north. Why is there an “African Easterly Jet”?:  Why is there an “African Easterly Jet”? In West Africa, we have the opposite situation: Temperature decreases to the north Therefore, U decreases with height. A negative U is a wind from the east—the AEJ! Thermal Wind Relationship:  Thermal Wind Relationship Thermal Wind Relationship:  Thermal Wind Relationship 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb Thermal Wind Relationship:  Thermal Wind Relationship 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb Thermal Wind Relationship:  Thermal Wind Relationship 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb 500mb 400mb Pressure Gradient Force Meridional temperature gradient at the surface is key to the existence of the AEJ!:  Meridional temperature gradient at the surface is key to the existence of the AEJ! Slide17:  PGF Coriolis AEJ Slide18:  At this point, the students should have read the paper by Cook (1999) to explain the feedback between the temperature gradient and the AEJ. Define 3 Regions:  Define 3 Regions Sahara Sahel ITCZ Determine the heat budget for each of these three regions to determine why there is a temperature gradient in West Africa. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget SW↓: Maybe the Sahara is hotter than the Sahel and the ITCZ simply because: the sun angles are higher the days are longer the sky is more clear SW↓ is greatest in the Sahara. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget SW↑: However, the Sahara has a much higher albedo than the Sahel or the ITCZ region. SW↑ is greatest in the Sahara. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget Net SW: Still, the net shortwave radiation at the surface is greatest in the Sahara. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget LW↓: Most LW↓ comes from: cloud cover greenhouse gases like water vapor Therefore, the ITCZ region has the most LW↓, whereas the Sahara gains relatively little. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget LW↑: Longwave radiation emitted by the surface is determined primarily by the temperature of the surface. Therefore, the Saharan region loses the most LW↑, whereas the ITCZ region loses relatively little. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget Net LW: The ITCZ has very little loss of heat by longwave radiation. The Sahara loses a great deal of heat by longwave radiation. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget Net Radiative Heating: The ITCZ region actually gains more heat by radiative processes than the Sahara does! So, why is the Sahara warmer? (It seems like the coastal region should be warmer.) Heat Budget:  Heat Budget Sensible Heat flux: In the Sahara, the ground is much hotter than the air during the day, so SHF is very great. In the ITCZ region, the air temperature and the ground temperature are approximately equal, so SHF is nearly zero. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget Latent Heat flux: In the Sahara, the ground is completely dry—there is basically no cooling by evaporation. In the ITCZ region, soil moisture is high, so there is a great deal of evaporative cooling at the surface. Heat Budget:  Heat Budget About equal amounts of heat are transferred from the ground to the atmosphere in the Sahara and in the ITCZ regions. Sahara: Sensible Heat Flux ITCZ: Latent Heat Flux But the difference between these two methods is very important… Sensible Heat Flux in the Sahara:  Sensible Heat Flux in the Sahara Heat transfers from the surface into the atmosphere by conduction, warming only the air very near the surface. All of the heat becomes trapped in a very shallow layer. This layer becomes very hot. Latent Heat Flux in the ITCZ:  Latent Heat Flux in the ITCZ Heat transfers from the surface into the atmosphere by evaporation. This latent heat is released to the atmosphere at great heights. An Important Feedback:  An Important Feedback Atmospheric Temperature Gradients Near the Surface African Easterly Jet (AEJ) African Easterly Waves (AEW) Convection in the ITCZ Region (Squalls, MCSs, etc.) Soil Moisture in the ITCZ Region Based on this feedback…:  Based on this feedback… …we should be able to make certain predictions about the AEJ. Rain Rate (mm/d):  Rain Rate (mm/d) Over the course of the monsoon season, the precipitation moves progressively farther to the north, moistening the soil as it goes. Therefore, we expect that the AEJ should north between June and August. Zonal Wind at 700mb along 2.5°E (m/s):  Zonal Wind at 700mb along 2.5°E (m/s) And it does! In fact, notice that the peak winds are directly above the strongest gradient in the precipitation pattern!

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