There’s What in My Water??**Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Endocrine Disrupters in Wastewater and Drinking Water

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Information about There’s What in My Water??**Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Endocrine...

Published on November 21, 2008

Author: triumvirate

Source: slideshare.net

There’s What in My Water?? Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Endocrine Disrupters in Wastewater and Drinking Water Stephen Estes-Smargiassi Director of Planning November 20, 2008

So Why Do We Care About Drugs in Our Water?

So Why Do We Care About Drugs in Our Water? Sex Drug Found in San Fran Water A sex hormone was detected in San Francisco’s drinking water. Officials in Philadelphia said testing there discovered 56 pharmaceuticals or byproducts in treated drinking water, including medicines for pain, infection …. The situation is undoubtedly worse than suggested by the positive test results in the major population centers documented by the AP. The federal government doesn’t require any testing and hasn’t set safety limits for drugs in water. Of the 62 major water providers contacted, the drinking water for only 28 was tested. Among the 34

Sex Drug Found in San Fran Water

From The Boston Globe Pharmaceuticals found in US drinking water Trace quantities could endanger wildlife, humans By Jeff Donn, Associated Press | March 10, 2008 NEW YORK - An array of pharmaceuticals - including antibiotics, anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers, and sex hormones - have been found in the drinking water supplies of at least 41 million Americans, an Associated Press investigation found. The concentrations of these pharmaceuticals are tiny, measured in quantities of parts per billion or trillion, far below the levels of a medical dose. And utilities insist that their water is safe. But the presence of so many prescription drugs - and over-the-counter medicines like acetaminophen and ibuprofen - in so much of our drinking water is heightening worries among scientists of long-term consequences to human health.

Pharmaceuticals found in US drinking water

Trace quantities could endanger wildlife, humans

By Jeff Donn, Associated Press | March 10, 2008

Best Known for the “Boston Harbor Cleanup”

And Quabbin Reservoir

MWRA’s Water System From the shores of the Connecticut River to Boston Harbor 50 Cities and Towns – 2.5 million users 220 million gallons per day

From the shores of the Connecticut River to Boston Harbor

50 Cities and Towns – 2.5 million users

220 million gallons per day

The source – 400 square miles of protected lands $118 Million invested in land preservation So well protected, the Safe Drinking Water Act requires only disinfection

$118 Million invested in land preservation

So well protected, the Safe Drinking Water Act requires only disinfection

No Pharmaceuticals In MWRA Water Supply After AP story broke last March, MWRA tested for 31 pharmaceutical compounds No traces were found!

After AP story broke last March, MWRA tested for 31 pharmaceutical compounds

No traces were found!

Associated Press: Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water

MWRA Tested For and Did Not Detect PHARMACEUTICALS: Acetaminophen Caffeine Carbamazepine Fluoxetine Gemfibrozil Ibuprofen Iopromide Sulfamethoxazole Trimethoprim HORMONES: Estradiol Estrone Ethyl Estradiol Progesterone Testoserone ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: 2, 6-Di-tert-butylphenol 4-Methylphenol 4-Nonylphenol Alpha Chloradane Bis Phenol A (BPA) Carbaryl Chlorpyrifos DEET Diazinon Dieldrin Methylparathon Phenol TDCPP Triclosan Triphenyl Phosphate Tris (2-Butoxyethyl) Phosphate* Tris (2-Chloroethyl) Phosphate

PHARMACEUTICALS:

Acetaminophen

Caffeine

Carbamazepine

Fluoxetine

Gemfibrozil

Ibuprofen

Iopromide

Sulfamethoxazole

Trimethoprim

HORMONES:

Estradiol

Estrone

Ethyl Estradiol

Progesterone

Testoserone

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS:

2, 6-Di-tert-butylphenol

4-Methylphenol

4-Nonylphenol

Alpha Chloradane

Bis Phenol A (BPA)

Carbaryl

Chlorpyrifos

DEET

Diazinon

Dieldrin

Methylparathon

Phenol

TDCPP

Triclosan

Triphenyl Phosphate

Tris (2-Butoxyethyl) Phosphate*

Tris (2-Chloroethyl) Phosphate

So Are Pristine Sources the Only Answer? No! Absolutely Pristine Sources Represent Only a Small Fraction of Systems Most Large Cities - Rivers and Lakes with Development Upstream Smaller Cities (and Some Large) - Groundwater with Human Activity Agricultural Sources are Prevalent It May Not Be “Toilet To Tap”, But Most Water Is “Used” By The Time It Gets to a Water Treatment Plant

No!

Absolutely Pristine Sources Represent Only a Small Fraction of Systems

Most Large Cities - Rivers and Lakes with Development Upstream

Smaller Cities (and Some Large) - Groundwater with Human Activity

Agricultural Sources are Prevalent

It May Not Be “Toilet To Tap”, But Most Water Is “Used” By The Time It Gets to a Water Treatment Plant

A Bit of History

Early Papers on Estrogenic Effect

Early Paper: Natural and Synthetic Hormones

Early Paper: Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater



Turning to the Key Question

Four Parallel and Complementary Paths How Do We Effectively Communicate about This Issue with the Public? What is their Occurrence in the Environment and in Drinking Water? What is the Toxicological Relevance of Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and EDCs? How Can We Reduce the Risk? Treatment Wastewater, Water Source Reduction Homes, Businesses, Health Care Facilities

How Do We Effectively Communicate about This Issue with the Public?

What is their Occurrence in the Environment and in Drinking Water?

What is the Toxicological Relevance of Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and EDCs?

How Can We Reduce the Risk?

Treatment

Wastewater, Water

Source Reduction

Homes, Businesses, Health Care Facilities

Pharmaceuticals - Why? On one level it doesn’t make sense Low levels, only detected through better technology No documented health effects Modern water treatment has improved public health Competing concerns of infrastructure, known health effects, new regulations

On one level it doesn’t make sense

Low levels, only detected through better technology

No documented health effects

Modern water treatment has improved public health

Competing concerns of infrastructure, known health effects, new regulations

Risk Perception Factors Drive Outrage Voluntariness – involuntary or imposed risk Controllability – risks under the control of others Familiarity – risk perceived to be unfamiliar Understanding – is the risk poorly understood Uncertainty – does it have highly uncertain dimensions Dread – evokes fear, terror or anxiety Trust in Institutions – does the institution have credibility? Personal stake – personally and directly at risk? Human vs. natural origin – risk of human origin less readily accepted After – P. Sandman

Voluntariness – involuntary or imposed risk

Controllability – risks under the control of others

Familiarity – risk perceived to be unfamiliar

Understanding – is the risk poorly understood

Uncertainty – does it have highly uncertain dimensions

Dread – evokes fear, terror or anxiety

Trust in Institutions – does the institution have credibility?

Personal stake – personally and directly at risk?

Human vs. natural origin – risk of human origin less readily accepted

Risk Communication Perspective Perceptions are valid and must be addressed equally in relation to scientific data

Perceptions are valid and must be addressed equally in relation to scientific data

What Worked with Local Media Openness about uncertainty and results Trust within the community Proactive strategy Clear message

Openness about uncertainty and results

Trust within the community

Proactive strategy

Clear message

What Didn’t Work “ The public won’t understand ” Citing regulations Lack of empathy with consumer worry “ The water is absolutely safe ” Reactive testing “ I can’t tell your for security reasons ”

“ The public won’t understand ”

Citing regulations

Lack of empathy with consumer worry

“ The water is absolutely safe ”

Reactive testing

“ I can’t tell your for security reasons ”

What Didn’t Work Water providers rarely disclose results of pharmaceutical screenings, unless pressed… (the spokesman) said the public " doesn't know how to interpret the information" and might be unduly alarmed.” "It would be irresponsible to communicate to the public about this issue, as doing so would only generate questions that scientific research has not yet answered. We don't want to create the perception where people would be alarmed ."

Water providers rarely disclose results of pharmaceutical screenings, unless pressed… (the spokesman) said the public " doesn't know how to interpret the information" and might be unduly alarmed.”

"It would be irresponsible to communicate to the public about this issue, as doing so would only generate questions that scientific research has not yet answered. We don't want to create the perception where people would be alarmed ."

What Didn’t Work (City) leaders are convinced you should drink tap water…But the city doesn't test the tap water you drink for pharmaceuticals -- a growing area of concern… "We perform all the tests asked for by the [U.S.] Environmental Protection Agency," said a(a city) spokesman for Department of Water. "We are confident our purified water is safe." He said revealing the name in the post-9/11 world could cause a terrorist to intentionally release more of the drug , causing harm to residents.

(City) leaders are convinced you should drink tap water…But the city doesn't test the tap water you drink for pharmaceuticals -- a growing area of concern…

"We perform all the tests asked for by the [U.S.] Environmental Protection Agency," said a(a city) spokesman for Department of Water. "We are confident our purified water is safe."

He said revealing the name in the post-9/11 world could cause a terrorist to intentionally release more of the drug , causing harm to residents.

The Water Industry Has Been Out in Front American Waterworks Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) Methods Development Occurrence Monitoring Treatment Effectiveness Review of Toxicological Knowledge Base Awwa RF Board of Trustees approved a multi-year, $1 million per year Strategic Initiative Integrative Frameworks to Assess and Communicate Risk. Analytical Methods to Support EDC/PPCP Research Objectives. Assess Watershed and Treatment Impact on EDC/PPCP Exposure at the Tap

American Waterworks Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF)

Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF)

Methods Development

Occurrence Monitoring

Treatment Effectiveness

Review of Toxicological Knowledge Base

Awwa RF Board of Trustees approved a multi-year, $1 million per year Strategic Initiative

Integrative Frameworks to Assess and Communicate Risk.

Analytical Methods to Support EDC/PPCP Research Objectives.

Assess Watershed and Treatment Impact on EDC/PPCP Exposure at the Tap

Review of Recent Occurrence Data AwwaRF Funded Study Principle Investigator - Shane Synder of Southern Nevada Water Authority Nationwide Screening Study Identify Compounds of Interest Assess Frequency and Concentrations Comparative Estrogenicity and Toxicology Communication Guidance Over 300 samples from 17 water systems Completed this past spring

AwwaRF Funded Study

Principle Investigator - Shane Synder of Southern Nevada Water Authority

Nationwide Screening Study

Identify Compounds of Interest

Assess Frequency and Concentrations

Comparative Estrogenicity and Toxicology

Communication Guidance

Over 300 samples from 17 water systems

Completed this past spring

Screening List of Pharmaceuticals



Screening List of Potential Endocrine Disrupting Compounds



Screening List of Steroids and Phytoestrogens

Analytical Methods

Isotope Dilution – Pretty Cool!





Results















A Quick Aside: Food and Beverages



E-Screen Assay









Conclusions of the AwwaRF Screening Study

Real World Water Cycle Away Does Not Mean Away What Goes Down the Drain Shows Up Again Drinking Water Wastewater It May Not Be “Toilet To Tap”, But Most Water Is “Used” By The Time It Gets to a Water Treatment Plant

Away Does Not Mean Away

What Goes Down the Drain Shows Up Again

It May Not Be “Toilet To Tap”, But Most Water Is “Used” By The Time It Gets to a Water Treatment Plant

Sources in Wastewater and the Environment Wastewater Consumer Disposal of Drugs and Other Products Health Care Facilities Excretion of Natural and Artificial Compounds Agricultural and Veterinary Sources

Wastewater

Consumer Disposal of Drugs and Other Products

Health Care Facilities

Excretion of Natural and Artificial Compounds

Agricultural and Veterinary Sources

Removal by Wastewater Treatment Plants? Not Expressly Regulated by EPA Neither Monitoring nor Removal Required Still at the learning stage Conventional Biological Wastewater Treatment Reduces Some Compounds Nutrient Removal Plants Can Reduce Further Advanced Plants – Activated Carbon, Membrane, Reverse Osmosis – demonstrate even greater reductions Water Reuse Plants at high end of scale Resource Allocation Question Remains – How much is enough reduction, and how to achieve it?

Not Expressly Regulated by EPA

Neither Monitoring nor Removal Required

Still at the learning stage

Conventional Biological Wastewater Treatment Reduces Some Compounds

Nutrient Removal Plants Can Reduce Further

Advanced Plants – Activated Carbon, Membrane, Reverse Osmosis – demonstrate even greater reductions

Water Reuse Plants at high end of scale

Resource Allocation Question Remains – How much is enough reduction, and how to achieve it?

Removal by Water Treatment Plants Not Expressly Regulated by EPA Neither Monitoring nor Removal Required Still at the learning stage Conventional Filtration Plants – Relatively low reductions Advance Filtration – carbon or membranes – Fairly high reductions Advanced disinfection – ozone and UV – Fairly high reductions Depends on the nature of the compound as well Resource Allocation Question Remains – How much is enough reduction, and how to achieve it?

Not Expressly Regulated by EPA

Neither Monitoring nor Removal Required

Still at the learning stage

Conventional Filtration Plants – Relatively low reductions

Advance Filtration – carbon or membranes – Fairly high reductions

Advanced disinfection – ozone and UV – Fairly high reductions

Depends on the nature of the compound as well

Resource Allocation Question Remains – How much is enough reduction, and how to achieve it?

What Can We Do at the Source? Consumer Take Back Programs Improved Disposal at Health Care Facilities Improved (reduced) use in veterinary and agricultural use Is this enough? Why bother? Largest Source In Many Places May be Excretion Clear case of “ If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.”

Consumer Take Back Programs

Improved Disposal at Health Care Facilities

Improved (reduced) use in veterinary and agricultural use

Is this enough?

Why bother?

Largest Source In Many Places May be Excretion

Clear case of “ If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.”

A Few Closing Thoughts Will This Go Away? NO! Consumer concern The detection paradox Even if Not a Human Health Concern, it is an Environmental Concern We need data about human and environmental impacts, not just about occurrence We need to work at effectively communicating about real and perceived risk Consumers expect us to be knowledgeable, and to do the right thing

Will This Go Away? NO!

Consumer concern

The detection paradox

Even if Not a Human Health Concern, it is an Environmental Concern

We need data about human and environmental impacts, not just about occurrence

We need to work at effectively communicating about real and perceived risk

Consumers expect us to be knowledgeable, and to do the right thing

No One Wants Drugs in Their Water

Questions or Comments? Stephen Estes-Smargiassi [email_address] 617-788-4303 www.mwra.com

Stephen Estes-Smargiassi

[email_address]

617-788-4303

www.mwra.com

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