Information about Theory of machines by RS Khurmi

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2. (vi) 4. Simple Harmonic Motion ... 7293 1. Introduction. 2. Velocity and Acceleration of a Particle Moving with Simple Harmonic Motion. 3. Differential Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion. 4. Terms Used in Simple Harmonic Motion. 5. Simple Pendulum. 6. Laws of Simple Pendulum. 7. Closely-coiled Helical Spring. 8. Compound Pendulum. 9. Centre of Percussion. 10. Bifilar Suspension. 11. Trifilar Suspension (Torsional Pendulum). 5. Simple Mechanisms ...94118 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematic Link or Element. 3. Types of Links. 4. Structure. 5. Difference Between a Machine and a Structure. 6. Kinematic Pair. 7. Types of Constrained Motions. 8. Classification of Kinematic Pairs. 9. Kinematic Chain. 10. Types of Joints in a Chain. 11. Mechanism. 12. Number of Degrees of Freedom for Plane Mechanisms. 13. Application of Kutzbach Criterion to Plane Mechanisms. 14. Grubler's Criterion for Plane Mechanisms. 15. Inversion of Mechanism. 16. Types of Kinematic Chains. 17. Four Bar Chain or Quadric Cycle Chain. 18. Inversions of Four Bar Chain. 19. Single Slider Crank Chain. 20. Inversions of Single Slider Crank Chain. 21. Double Slider Crank Chain. 22. Inversions of Double Slider Crank Chain. 6. Velocity in Mechanisms ...119142 (Instantaneous Centre Method) 1. Introduction. 2. Space and Body Centrodes. 3. Methods for Determining the Velocity of a Point on a Link. 4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by Instantaneous Centre Method. 5. Properties of the Instantaneous Centre. 6. Number of Instantaneous Centres in a Mechanism. 7. Types of Instantaneous Centres. 8. Location of Instantaneous Centres. 9. Aronhold Kennedy (or Three Centres-in-Line) Theorem. 10. Method of Locating Instantaneous Centres in a Mechanism. 7. Velocity in Mechanisms ...143173 (Relative Velocity Method) 1. Introduction. 2. Relative Velocity of Two Bodies Moving in Straight Lines. 3. Motion of a Link. 4. Velocity of a Point on a Link by Relative Velocity Method. 5. Velocities in a Slider Crank Mechanism. 6. Rubbing Velocity at a Pin Joint. 7. Forces Acting in a Mechanism. 8. Mechanical Advantage.

3. (vii) 8. Acceleration in Mechanisms ...174231 1. Introduction. 2. Acceleration Diagram for a Link. 3. Acceleration of a Point on a Link. 4. Acceleration in the Slider Crank Mechanism. 5. Coriolis Component of Acceleration. 9. Mechanisms with Lower Pairs ...232257 1. Introduction 2. Pantograph 3. Straight Line Mechanism.4.ExactStraightLineMotionMechanisms Made up of Turning Pairs. 5. Exact Straight Line Motion Consisting of One Sliding Pair (Scott Russels Mechanism). 6. Approximate Straight Line Motion Mechanisms. 7. Straight Line Motions for Engine Indicators. 8. Steering Gear Mechanism. 9. Davis Steering Gear. 10. Ackerman Steering Gear. 11. Universal or Hookes Joint. 12. Ratio of the ShaftsVelocities.13.MaximumandMinimumSpeeds of the Driven Shaft. 14. Condition for Equal Speeds of the Driving and Driven Shafts. 15. Angular Acceleration of the Driven Shaft. 16. Maximum Fluctuation of Speed. 17. Double Hookes Joint. 10. Friction ...258324 1. Introduction. 2. Types of Friction. 3. Friction Between Unlubricated Surfaces. 4. Friction Between Lubricated Surfaces. 5. Limiting Friction. 6. Laws of Static Friction. 7. Laws of Kinetic or Dynamic Friction. 8. Laws of Solid Friction. 9. Laws of Fluid Friction. 10. Coefficient of Friction. 11. Limiting Angle of Friction. 12. Angle of Repose. 13. Minimum Force Required to Slide a Body on a Rough Horizontal Plane. 14. Friction of a Body Lying on a Rough Inclined Plane. 15. Efficiency of Inclined Plane. 16. Screw Friction. 17. Screw Jack. 18. Torque Required to Lift the Load by a Screw Jack. 19. Torque Required to Lower the Load by a Screw Jack. 20. Efficiency of a Screw Jack. 21. Maximum Efficiency of a Screw Jack. 22. Over Hauling and Self Locking Screws. 23. Efficiency of Self Locking Screws. 24. Friction of a V-thread. 25. Friction in Journal Bearing-Friction Circle. 26. Friction of Pivot and Collar Bearing. 27. Flat Pivot Bearing. 28.ConicalPivotBearing.29.TrapezoidalorTruncated Conical Pivot Bearing. 30. Flat Collar Bearing 31. Friction Clutches. 32. Single Disc or Plate Clutch. 33. Multiple Disc Clutch. 34. Cone Clutch. 35. Centrifugal Clutches. 11. Belt, Rope and Chain Drives ...325381 1. Introduction. 2. Selection of a Belt Drive. 3. Types of Belt Drives. 4. Types of Belts. 5. Material used for Belts. 6. Types of Flat Belt

4. (viii) Drives. 7. Velocity Ratio of Belt Drive. 8. Velocity Ratio of a Compound Belt Drive. 9. Slip of Belt. 10. Creep of Belt. 11. Length of an Open Belt Drive. 12.LengthofaCrossBeltDrive.13.PowerTransmitted by a Belt. 14. Ratio of Driving Tensions for Flat Belt Drive. 15. Determination of Angle of Contact. 16. Centrifugal Tension. 17. Maximum Tension in the Belt. 18. Condition for the Transmission of Maximum Power. 19. Initial Tension in the Belt. 20. V-belt Drive. 21. Advantages and Disadvantages of V-belt Drive Over Flat Belt Drive. 22. Ratio of Driving Tensions for V-belt. 23. Rope Drive. 24. Fibre Ropes. 25. Advantages of Fibre Rope Drives. 26. Sheave for Fibre Ropes. 27. Wire Ropes. 28. Ratio of Driving Tensions for Rope Drive. 29. Chain Drives. 30. Advantages and Disadvantages of Chain Drive Over Belt or Rope Drive. 31. Terms Used in Chain Drive. 32. Relation Between Pitch and Pitch Circle Diameter. 33. Relation Between Chain Speed and Angular Velocity of Sprocket. 34. Kinematic of Chain Drive. 35. Classification of Chains.36.HoistingandHaulingChains.37.Conveyor Chains. 38. Power Transmitting Chains. 39. Length of Chains. 12. Toothed Gearing ...382427 1. Introduction. 2. Friction Wheels. 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Gear Drive. 4. Classification of Toothed Wheels. 5. Terms Used in Gears. 6. Gear Materials. 7. Condition for Constant Velocity Ratio of Toothed Wheels-Law of Gearing. 8. Velocity of Sliding of Teeth. 9. Forms of Teeth. 10. Cycloidal Teeth. 11. Involute Teeth. 12. Effect of Altering the Centre Distance on the Velocity Ratio For Involute Teeth Gears. 13. Comparison Between Involute and Cycloidal Gears. 14. Systems of Gear Teeth. 15. Standard Proportions of Gear Systems. 16. Length of Path of Contact. 17. Length of Arc of Contact. 18. Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact). 19. Interference in Involute Gears. 20. Minimum Number of Teeth on the Pinion in Order to Avoid Interference. 21. Minimum Number of Teeth on the Wheel in Order to Avoid Interference. 22. Minimum Number of Teeth on a Pinion for Involute Rack in Order to Avoid Interference. 23. Helical Gears. 24. Spiral Gears. 25. Centre Distance for a Pair of Spiral Gears. 26. Efficiency of Spiral Gears. 13. Gear Trains ...428479 1. Introduction. 2. Types of Gear Trains. 3. Simple Gear Train. 4. Compound Gear Train.

5. (ix) 5. Design of Spur Gears. 6. Reverted Gear Train. 7. Epicyclic Gear Train. 8. Velocity Ratio of Epicyclic Gear Train. 9. Compound Epicyclic Gear Train (Sun and Planet Wheel). 10. Epicyclic Gear Train With Bevel Gears. 11. Torques in Epicyclic Gear Trains. 14. Gyroscopic Couple and Precessional Motion ...480513 1. Introduction. 2. Precessional Angular Motion. 3. Gyroscopic Couple. 4. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on an Aeroplane. 5. Terms Used in a Naval Ship. 6. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Naval Ship during Steering. 7. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Naval Ship during Pitching. 8. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Navel during Rolling. 9. Stability of a Four Wheel drive Moving in a Curved Path. 10. Stability of a Two Wheel Vehicle Taking a Turn. 11. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on a Disc Fixed Rigidly at a Certain Angle to a Rotating Shaft. 15. Inertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts ...514564 1. Introduction. 2. Resultant Effect of a System of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body. 3. D-Alemberts Principle. 4. Velocity and Acceleration of the ReciprocatingPartsinEngines.5.KliensConstruction. 6.RitterhaussConstruction.7.BennettsConstruction. 8. Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston. 9. Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod. 10. Forces on the Reciprocating Parts of an Engine Neglecting Weight of the Connecting Rod. 11. Equivalent Dynamical System. 12. Determination of Equivalent Dynamical System of Two Masses by Graphical Method. 13. Correction Couple to be Applied to Make the Two Mass Systems Dynamically Equivalent. 14.InertiaForcesinaReciprocatingEngineConsidering the Weight of Connecting Rod. 15. Analytical Method for Inertia Torque. 16. Turning Moment Diagrams and Flywheel ... 565611 1. Introduction. 2. Turning Moment Diagram for a Single Cylinder Double Acting Steam Engine. 3. Turning Moment Diagram for a Four Stroke Cycle Internal Combustion Engine. 4. Turning Moment Diagram for a Multicylinder Engine. 5. Fluctuation of Energy. 6. Determination of Maximum Fluctuation of Energy. 7. Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy. 8. Flywheel. 9. Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed. 10. Energy Stored in a Flywheel. 11. Dimensions of the Flywheel Rim. 12. Flywheel in Punching Press.

6. (x) 17. Steam Engine Valves and Reversing Gears ...612652 1. Introduction. 2. D-slide Valve. 3. Piston Slide Valve. 4. Relative Positions of Crank and Eccentric Centre Lines. 5. Crank Positions for Admission, Cut off, Release and Compression. 6. Approximate Analytical Method for Crank Positions at Admission, Cut-off, Release and Compression. 7. Valve Diagram. 8.ZeunerValveDiagram.9.ReuleauxValveDiagram. 10. Bilgram Valve Diagram. 11. Effect of the Early Point of Cut-off with a Simple Slide Valve. 12.MeyersExpansionValve.13.VirtualorEquivalent Eccentric for the Meyers Expansion Valve. 14. Minimum Width and Best Setting of the Expansion Plate for Meyers Expansion Valve. 15. Reversing Gears. 16. Principle of Link Motions-Virtual Eccentric for a Valve with an Off-set Line of Stroke. 17. Stephenson Link Motion. 18. Virtual or Equivalent Eccentric for Stephenson Link Motion. 19. Radial ValveGears.20.HackworthValveGear.21.Walschaert Valve Gear. 18. Governors ...653731 1. Introduction. 2. Types of Governors. 3. Centrifugal Governors. 4. Terms Used in Governors. 5. Watt Governor. 6. Porter Governor. 7. Proell Governor. 8. Hartnell Governor. 9. Hartung Governor. 10.Wilson-HartnellGovernor.11.PickeringGovernor. 12. Sensitiveness of Governors. 13. Stability of Governors. 14. Isochronous Governor. 15. Hunting. 16. Effort and Power of a Governor. 17. Effort and Power of a Porter Governor. 18. Controlling Force. 19. Controlling Force Diagram for a Porter Governor. 20. Controlling Force Diagram for a Spring-controlled Governor. 21. Coefficient of Insensitiveness. 19. Brakes and Dynamometers ...732773 1. Introduction. 2. Materials for Brake Lining. 3. Types of Brakes. 4. Single Block or Shoe Brake. 5. Pivoted Block or Shoe Brake. 6. Double Block or Shoe Brake. 7. Simple Band Brake. 8. Differential Band Brake. 9. Band and Block Brake. 10. Internal Expanding Brake. 11. Braking of a Vehicle. 12. Dynamometer. 13. Types of Dynamometers. 14. Classification of Absorption Dynamometers. 15. Prony Brake Dynamometer. 16. Rope Brake Dynamometers. 17. Classification of Transmission Dynamometers. 18. Epicyclic-train Dynamometers. 19. Belt Transmission Dynamometer-Froude or ThroneycraftTransmissionDynamometer.20.Torsion Dynamometer. 21. Bevis Gibson Flash Light Torsion Dynamometer.

7. (xi) 20. Cams ...774832 1. Introduction. 2. Classification of Followers. 3. Classification of Cams. 4. Terms used in Radial cams. 5. Motion of the Follower. 6. Displacement, VelocityandAccelerationDiagramswhentheFollower Moves with Uniform Velocity. 7. Displacement, VelocityandAccelerationDiagramswhentheFollower MoveswithSimpleHarmonicMotion.8.Displacement, VelocityandAccelerationDiagramswhentheFollower Moves with Uniform Acceleration and Retardation. 9.Displacement,VelocityandAccelerationDiagrams when the Follower Moves with Cycloidal Motion. 10 Construction of Cam Profiles. 11. Cams with SpecifiedContours.12.TangentCamwithReciprocating Roller Follower. 13. Circular Arc Cam with Flat- faced Follower. 21. Balancing of Rotating Masses ...833857 1. Introduction. 2. Balancing of Rotating Masses. 3. Balancing of a Single Rotating Mass By a Single Mass Rotating in the Same Plane. 4. Balancing of a Single Rotating Mass By Two Masses Rotating in Different Planes. 5. Balancing of Several Masses Rotating in the Same Plane. 6. Balancing of Several Masses Rotating in Different Planes. 22. Balancing of Reciprocating Masses ...858908 1.Introduction.2.PrimaryandSecondaryUnbalanced Forces of Reciprocating Masses. 3. Partial Balancing of Unbalanced Primary Force in a Reciprocating Engine. 4. Partial Balancing of Locomotives. 5. Effect of Partial Balancing of Reciprocating Parts of Two Cylinder Locomotives. 6. Variation of Tractive Force. 7. Swaying Couple. 8. Hammer Blow. 9. Balancing of Coupled Locomotives. 10. Balancing of Primary Forces of Multi-cylinder In-line Engines. 11. Balancing of Secondary Forces of Multi-cylinder In-line Engines. 12. Balancing of Radial Engines (Direct and Reverse Crank Method). 13. Balancing of V-engines. 23. Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations ...909971 1. Introduction. 2. Terms Used in Vibratory Motion. 3. Types of Vibratory Motion. 4. Types of Free Vibrations. 5. Natural Frequency of Free Longitudinal Vibrations. 6. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations. 7. Effect of Inertia of the Constraint in Longitudinal and Transverse Vibrations. 8. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations Due to a Point Load Acting Over a Simply Supported Shaft. 9. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations Due to Uniformly Distributed Load Over a Simply

8. (xii) Supported Shaft. 10. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations of a Shaft Fixed at Both Ends and Carrying a Uniformly Distributed Load. 11. Natural Frequency of Free Transverse Vibrations for a Shaft Subjected to a Number of Point Loads. 12.CriticalorWhirlingSpeedofaShaft.13.Frequency of Free Damped Vibrations (Viscous Damping). 14.DampingFactororDampingRatio.15.Logarithmic Decrement. 16. Frequency of Underdamped Forced Vibrations. 17. Magnification Factor or Dynamic Magnifier.18.VibrationIsolationandTransmissibility. 24. Torsional Vibrations ...9721001 1.Introduction.2.NaturalFrequencyofFreeTorsional Vibrations. 3.Effect of Inertia of the Constraint on Torsional Vibrations. 4. Free Torsional Vibrations of a Single Rotor System. 5. Free Torsional Vibrations of a Two Rotor System. 6. Free Torsional Vibrations of a Three Rotor System. 7. Torsionally Equivalent Shaft. 8. Free Torsional Vibrations of a Geared System. 25. Computer Aided Analysis and Synthesis of Mechanisms ...10021049 1. Introduction. 2. Computer Aided Analysis for Four Bar Mechanism (Freudensteins Equation). 3. Programme for Four Bar mechanism. 4. Computer Aided Analysis for Slider Crank Mechanism. 6. Coupler Curves. 7. Synthesis of Mechanisms. 8. Classifications of Synthesis Problem. 9. Precision PointsforFunctionGeneration.10.AngleRelationship for function Generation. 11. Graphical Synthesis of Four Bar Mechanism. 12. Graphical synthesis of Slider Crank Mechanism. 13. Computer Aided (Analytical) synthesis of Four Bar Mechanism. 14. Programme to Co-ordinate the Angular DisplacementsoftheInputandOutputLinks.15. Least square Technique. 16. Programme using Least Square Technique. 17. Computer Aided Synthesis of Four Bar Mechanism With Coupler Point. 18. Synthesis of Four Bar Mechanism for Body Guidance. 19. Analytical Synthesis for slider Crank Mechanism. 26. Automatic Control ...10501062 1. Introduction. 2. Terms Used in Automatic Control of Systems. 3. Types of Automatic Control System. 4. Block Diagrams. 5. Lag in Response. 6. Transfer Function. 7. Overall Transfer Function. 8 Transfer Function for a system with Viscous Damped Output. 9. Transfer Function of a Hartnell Governor. 10. Open-Loop Transfer Function. 11. Closed-Loop Transfer Function. Index ...10631071 GO To FIRST

9. Chapter 1 : Introduction l 1 1 Introduction 1Features 1. Definition. 2. Sub-divisions of Theory of Machines. 3. Fundamental Units. 4. Derived Units. 5. Systems of Units. 6. C.G.S. Units. 7. F.P.S. Units. 8. M.K.S. Units. 9. International System of Units (S.I. Units). 10. Metre. 11. Kilogram. 12. Second. 13. Presentation of Units and their Values. 14. Rules for S.I. Units. 15. Force. 16. Resultant Force. 17. Scalars and Vectors. 18. Representation of Vector Quantities. 19. Addition of Vectors. 20. Subtraction of Vectors. 1.1. Definition The subject Theory of Machines may be defined as that branch of Engineering-science, which deals with the study of relative motion between the various parts of a machine, and forces which act on them. The knowledge of this subject is very essential for an engineer in designing the various parts of a machine. Note:A machine is a device which receives energy in some available form and utilises it to do some particular type of work. 1.2. Sub-divisions of Theory of Machines The Theory of Machines may be sub-divided into the following four branches : 1. Kinematics. It is that branch of Theory of Machines which deals with the relative motion between the various parts of the machines. 2. Dynamics. It is that branch of Theory of Machines which deals with the forces and their effects, while acting upon the machine parts in motion. 3. Kinetics. It is that branch of Theory of Machines which deals with the inertia forces which arise from the com- bined effect of the mass and motion of the machine parts. 4. Statics. It is that branch of Theory of Machines which deals with the forces and their effects while the ma- chine parts are at rest. The mass of the parts is assumed to be negligible. CONTENTSCONTENTS CONTENTSCONTENTS

10. 2 l Theory of Machines 1.3.1.3.1.3.1.3.1.3. Fundamental UnitsFundamental UnitsFundamental UnitsFundamental UnitsFundamental Units The measurement of physical quantities is one of the most important operations in engineering. Every quantity is measured in terms of some arbitrary, but internationally accepted units, called fundamental units. All physical quantities, met within this subject, are expressed in terms of the following three fundamental quantities : 1. Length (L or l ), 2. Mass (M or m), and 3. Time (t). 1.4.1.4.1.4.1.4.1.4. Derived UnitsDerived UnitsDerived UnitsDerived UnitsDerived Units Some units are expressed in terms of fundamental units known as derived units, e.g., the units of area, velocity, acceleration, pressure, etc. 1.5.1.5.1.5.1.5.1.5. Systems of UnitsSystems of UnitsSystems of UnitsSystems of UnitsSystems of Units There are only four systems of units, which are commonly used and universally recognised. These are known as : 1. C.G.S. units, 2. F.P.S. units, 3. M.K.S. units, and 4. S.I. units. 1.6.1.6.1.6.1.6.1.6. C.G.S. UnitsC.G.S. UnitsC.G.S. UnitsC.G.S. UnitsC.G.S. Units In this system, the fundamental units of length, mass and time are centimetre, gram and second respectively. The C.G.S. units are known as absolute units or physicist's units. 1.7.1.7.1.7.1.7.1.7. FFFFF.P.P.P.P.P.S..S..S..S..S. UnitsUnitsUnitsUnitsUnits In this system, the fundamental units of length, mass and time are foot, pound and second respectively. 1.8.1.8.1.8.1.8.1.8. M.K.S. UnitsM.K.S. UnitsM.K.S. UnitsM.K.S. UnitsM.K.S. Units In this system, the fundamental units of length, mass and time are metre, kilogram and second respectively. The M.K.S. units are known as gravitational units or engineer's units. 1.9.1.9.1.9.1.9.1.9. InterInterInterInterInternananananational System of Units (S.I.tional System of Units (S.I.tional System of Units (S.I.tional System of Units (S.I.tional System of Units (S.I. Units)Units)Units)Units)Units) The 11th general conference* of weights and measures have recommended a unified and systematically constituted system of fundamental and derived units for international use. This system is now being used in many countries. In India, the standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1956 (vide which we switched over to M.K.S. units) has been revised to recognise all the S.I. units in industry and commerce. * It is known as General Conference of Weights and Measures (G.C.W.M.). It is an international organisation, of which most of the advanced and developing countries (including India) are members. The conference has been entrusted with the task of prescribing definitions for various units of weights and measures, which are the very basic of science and technology today. Stopwatch Simple balance

11. Chapter 1 : Introduction l 3 In this system of units, the fundamental units are metre (m), kilogram (kg) and second (s) respectively. But there is a slight variation in their derived units. The derived units, which will be used in this book are given below : Density (mass density) kg/m3 Force N (Newton) Pressure Pa (Pascal) or N/m2 ( 1 Pa = 1 N/m2) Work, energy (in Joules) 1 J = 1 N-m Power (in watts) 1 W = 1 J/s Absolute viscosity kg/m-s Kinematic viscosity m2/s Velocity m/s Acceleration m/s2 Angular acceleration rad/s2 Frequency (in Hertz) Hz The international metre, kilogram and second are discussed below : 1.10. Metre The international metre may be defined as the shortest distance (at 0°C) between the two parallel lines, engraved upon the polished surface of a platinum-iridium bar, kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres near Paris. 1.11. Kilogram The international kilogram may be defined as the mass of the platinum-iridium cylinder, which is also kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sevres near Paris. 1.12. Second The fundamental unit of time for all the three systems, is second, which is 1/24 × 60 × 60 = 1/86 400th of the mean solar day. A solar day may be defined as the interval of time, between the A man whose mass is 60 kg weighs 588.6 N (60 × 9.81 m/s2 ) on earth, approximately 96 N (60 × 1.6 m/s2 ) on moon and zero in space. But mass remains the same everywhere.

12. 4 l Theory of Machines instants, at which the sun crosses a meridian on two consecutive days. This value varies slightly throughout the year. The average of all the solar days, during one year, is called the mean solar day. 1.13. Presentation of Units and their Values The frequent changes in the present day life are facilitated by an international body known as International Standard Organisation (ISO) which makes recommendations regarding international standard procedures. The implementation of ISO recommendations, in a country, is assisted by its organisation appointed for the purpose. In India, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) previously known as Indian Standards Institution (ISI) has been created for this purpose. We have already discussed that the fundamental units in M.K.S. and S.I. units for length, mass and time is metre, kilogram and second respec- tively. But in actual practice, it is not necessary to express all lengths in metres, all masses in kilograms and all times in sec- onds. We shall, sometimes, use the convenient units, which are multiples or divisions of our basic units in tens. As a typical example, although the metre is the unit of length, yet a smaller length of one-thousandth of a metre proves to be more con- venient unit, especially in the dimensioning of drawings. Such convenient units are formed by using a prefix in front of the basic units to indicate the multiplier. The full list of these prefixes is given in the following table. Table 1.1. Prefixes used in basic units Factor by which the unit Standard form Prefix Abbreviation is multiplied 1 000 000 000 000 1012 tera T 1 000 000 000 109 giga G 1 000 000 106 mega M 1 000 103 kilo k 100 102 hecto* h 10 101 deca* da 0.1 10–1 deci* d 0.01 10–2 centi* c 0.001 10–3 milli m 0. 000 001 10–6 micro µ 0. 000 000 001 10–9 nano n 0. 000 000 000 001 10–12 pico p With rapid development of Information Technology, computers are playing a major role in analysis, synthesis and design of machines. * These prefixes are generally becoming obsolete probably due to possible confusion. Moreover, it is becoming a conventional practice to use only those powers of ten which conform to 103x, where x is a positive or negative whole number.

13. Chapter 1 : Introduction l 5 1.14. Rules for S.I. Units The eleventh General Conference of Weights and Measures recommended only the funda- mental and derived units of S.I. units. But it did not elaborate the rules for the usage of the units. Later on many scientists and engineers held a number of meetings for the style and usage of S.I. units. Some of the decisions of the meetings are as follows : 1. For numbers having five or more digits, the digits should be placed in groups of three sepa- rated by spaces* (instead of commas) counting both to the left and right to the decimal point. 2. In a four digit number,** the space is not required unless the four digit number is used in a column of numbers with five or more digits. 3. A dash is to be used to separate units that are multiplied together. For example, newton metre is written as N-m. It should not be confused with mN, which stands for millinewton. 4. Plurals are never used with symbols. For example, metre or metres are written as m. 5. All symbols are written in small letters except the symbols derived from the proper names. For example, N for newton and W for watt. 6. The units with names of scientists should not start with capital letter when written in full. For example, 90 newton and not 90 Newton. At the time of writing this book, the authors sought the advice of various international authorities, regarding the use of units and their values. Keeping in view the international reputation of the authors, as well as international popularity of their books, it was decided to present units*** and their values as per recommendations of ISO and BIS. It was decided to use : 4500 not 4 500 or 4,500 75 890 000 not 75890000 or 7,58,90,000 0.012 55 not 0.01255 or .01255 30 × 106 not 3,00,00,000 or 3 × 107 The above mentioned figures are meant for numerical values only. Now let us discuss about the units. We know that the fundamental units in S.I. system of units for length, mass and time are metre, kilogram and second respectively. While expressing these quantities we find it time consum- ing to write the units such as metres, kilograms and seconds, in full, every time we use them. As a result of this, we find it quite convenient to use some standard abbreviations. We shall use : m for metre or metres km for kilometre or kilometres kg for kilogram or kilograms t for tonne or tonnes s for second or seconds min for minute or minutes N-m for newton × metres (e.g. work done ) kN-m for kilonewton × metres rev for revolution or revolutions rad for radian or radians * In certain countries, comma is still used as the decimal mark. ** In certain countries, a space is used even in a four digit number. *** In some of the question papers of the universities and other examining bodies, standard values are not used. The authors have tried to avoid such questions in the text of the book. However, at certain places, the questions with sub-standard values have to be included, keeping in view the merits of the question from the reader’s angle.

14. 6 l Theory of Machines 1.15. Force It is an important factor in the field of Engineering science, which may be defined as an agent, which produces or tends to produce, destroy or tends to destroy motion. 1.16. Resultant Force If a number of forces P,Q,R etc. are acting simultaneously on a particle, then a single force, which will produce the same effect as that of all the given forces, is known as a resultant force. The forces P,Q,R etc. are called component forces. The process of finding out the resultant force of the given component forces, is known as composition of forces. A resultant force may be found out analytically, graphically or by the following three laws: 1. Parallelogram law of forces. It states, “If two forces acting simultaneously on a particle be represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of a parallelogram taken in order, their resultant may be represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through the point.” 2. Triangle law of forces. It states, “If two forces acting simultaneously on a particle be represented in magnitude and direction by the two sides of a triangle taken in order, their resultant may be represented in magnitude and direction by the third side of the triangle taken in opposite order.” 3. Polygon law of forces. It states, “If a number of forces acting simultaneously on a particle be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a polygon taken in order, their resultant may be represented in magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon taken in opposite order.” 1.17. Scalars and Vectors 1. Scalar quantities are those quantities, which have magnitude only, e.g. mass, time, volume, density etc. 2.Vector quantities are those quantities which have magnitude as well as direction e.g. velocity, acceleration, force etc. 3. Since the vector quantities have both magnitude and direction, therefore, while adding or subtracting vector quantities, their directions are also taken into account. 1.18. Representation of Vector Quantities The vector quantities are represented by vectors. A vector is a straight line of a certain length

15. Chapter 1 : Introduction l 7 possessing a starting point and a terminal point at which it carries an arrow head. This vector is cut off along the vector quantity or drawn parallel to the line of action of the vector quantity, so that the length of the vector represents the magnitude to some scale. The arrow head of the vector represents the direction of the vector quantity. 1.19. Addition of Vectors (a) (b) Fig. 1.1. Addition of vectors. Consider two vector quantitiesP and Q, which are required to be added, as shown in Fig.1.1(a). Take a point A and draw a line AB parallel and equal in magnitude to the vector P. Through B, draw BC parallel and equal in magnitude to the vector Q. Join AC, which will give the required sum of the two vectors P and Q, as shown in Fig. 1.1 (b). 1.20. Subtraction of Vector Quantities Consider two vector quantities P and Q whose difference is required to be found out as shown in Fig. 1.2 (a). (a) (b) Fig. 1.2. Subtraction of vectors. Take a point A and draw a line AB parallel and equal in magnitude to the vector P. Through B, draw BC parallel and equal in magnitude to the vector Q, but in opposite direction. Join AC, which gives the required difference of the vectors P and Q, as shown in Fig. 1.2 (b). GO To FIRST

16. 8 l Theory of Machines 2.1. Introduction We have discussed in the previous Chapter, that the subject of Theory of Machines deals with the motion and forces acting on the parts (or links) of a machine. In this chap- ter, we shall first discuss the kinematics of motion i.e. the relative motion of bodies without consideration of the forces causing the motion. In other words, kinematics deal with the geometry of motion and concepts like displacement, velocity and acceleration considered as functions of time. 2.2. Plane Motion When the motion of a body is confined to only one plane, the motion is said to be plane motion. The plane mo- tion may be either rectilinear or curvilinear. 2.3. Rectilinear Motion It is the simplest type of motion and is along a straight line path. Such a motion is also known as translatory motion. 2.4. Curvilinear Motion It is the motion along a curved path. Such a motion, when confined to one plane, is called plane curvilinear motion. When all the particles of a body travel in concentric circular paths of constant radii (about the axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of motion) such as a pulley rotating 8 Kinematics of Motion 2Features 1. 1ntroduction. 2. Plane Motion. 3. Rectilinear Motion. 4. Curvilinear Motion. 5. Linear Displacement. 6. Linear Velocity. 7. Linear Acceleration. 8. Equations of Linear Motion. 9. Graphical Representation of Displacement with respect to Time. 10. Graphical Representation of Velocity with respect to Time. 11. Graphical Representation of Acceleration with respect to Time. 12. Angular Displacement. 13. Representation of Angular Displacement by a Vector. 14. Angular Velocity. 15. Angular Acceleration. 16. Equations of Angular Motion. 17. Relation Between Linear Motion and Angular Motion. 18. Relation Between Linear and Angular Quantities of Motion. 19. Acceleration of a Particle along a Circular Path. CONTENTSCONTENTS CONTENTSCONTENTS

17. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 9 about a fixed shaft or a shaft rotating about its own axis, then the motion is said to be a plane rotational motion. Note: The motion of a body, confined to one plane, may not be either completely rectilinear nor completely rotational. Such a type of motion is called combined rectilinear and rotational motion. This motion is dis- cussed in Chapter 6, Art. 6.1. 2.5. Linear Displacement It may be defined as the distance moved by a body with respect to a certain fixed point. The displacement may be along a straight or a curved path. In a reciprocating steam engine, all the particles on the piston, piston rod and cross- head trace a straight path, whereas all particles on the crank and crank pin trace circular paths, whose centre lies on the axis of the crank shaft. It will be interesting to know, that all the particles on the connecting rod neither trace a straight path nor a circular one; but trace an oval path, whose radius of curvature changes from time to time. The displacement of a body is a vector quantity, as it has both magnitude and direction. Linear displacement may, therefore, be represented graphically by a straight line. 2.6. Linear Velocity It may be defined as the rate of change of linear displacement of a body with respect to the time. Since velocity is always expressed in a particular direction, therefore it is a vector quantity. Mathematically, lin- ear velocity, v = ds/dt Notes: 1. If the displacement is along a circular path, then the direction of linear velocity at any instant is along the tangent at that point. 2. The speed is the rate of change of linear displacement of a body with respect to the time. Since the speed is irrespective of its direction, therefore, it is a scalar quantity. 2.7. Linear Acceleration It may be defined as the rate of change of linear velocity of a body with respect to the time. It is also a vector quantity. Mathematically, linear acceleration, 2 2 dv d ds d s a dt dt dt dt = = = ... ds v dt = 3 Notes: 1. The linear acceleration may also be expressed as follows: dv ds dv dv a v dt dt ds ds = = × = × 2. The negative acceleration is also known as deceleration or retardation. Spindle (axis of rotation) Axis of rotation Reference line θ ∆θ θο r

18. 10 l Theory of Machines 2.8.2.8.2.8.2.8.2.8. Equations of Linear MotionEquations of Linear MotionEquations of Linear MotionEquations of Linear MotionEquations of Linear Motion The following equations of linear motion are important from the subject point of view: 1. v = u + a.t 2. s = u.t + 1 2 a.t2 3. v2 = u2 + 2a.s 4. ( ) 2 av u v s t v t + = × = × where u = Initial velocity of the body, v = Final velocity of the body, a = Acceleration of the body, s = Displacement of the body in time t seconds, and vav = Average velocity of the body during the motion. Notes: 1. The above equations apply for uniform acceleration. If, however, the acceleration is variable, then it must be expressed as a function of either t, s or v and then integrated. 2. In case of vertical motion, the body is subjected to gravity. Thusg (acceleration due to grav- ity) should be substituted for ‘a’ in the above equa- tions. 3. The value of g is taken as + 9.81 m/s2 for downward motion, and – 9.81 m/s2 for upward mo- tion of a body. 4. When a body falls freely from a height h, then its velocity v, with which it will hit the ground is given by 2 .v g h= 2.9.2.9.2.9.2.9.2.9. GraGraGraGraGraphical Reprphical Reprphical Reprphical Reprphical Representaesentaesentaesentaesentation oftion oftion oftion oftion of Displacement with RespectDisplacement with RespectDisplacement with RespectDisplacement with RespectDisplacement with Respect tototototo TimeTimeTimeTimeTime The displacement of a moving body in a given time may be found by means of a graph. Such a graph is drawn by plotting the displacement as ordinate and the corresponding time as abscissa. We shall discuss the following two cases : 1. When the body moves with uniform velocity. When the body moves with uniform velocity, equal distances are covered in equal intervals of time. By plotting the distances on Y-axis and time on X-axis, a displacement-time curve (i.e. s-t curve) is drawn which is a straight line, as shown in Fig. 2.1 (a). The motion of the body is governed by the equation s = u.t, such that Velocity at instant 1 = s1 / t1 Velocity at instant 2 = s2 / t2 Since the velocity is uniform, therefore 31 2 1 2 3 tan ss s t t t = = = θ where tan θ is called the slope of s-t curve. In other words, the slope of the s-t curve at any instant gives the velocity. t = 0 s v = 0 m/s t = 2 s v = 19.62 m/s t = time v = velocity (downward) g = 9.81 m/s2 = acceleration due to gravity t = 1 s v = 9.81 m/s

19. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 11 2. When the body moves with variable velocity. When the body moves with variable velocity, unequaldistancesarecoveredinequalintervalsoftimeorequaldistancesarecoveredinunequalintervals of time. Thus the displacement-time graph, for such a case, will be a curve, as shown in Fig. 2.1 (b). (a) Uniform velocity. (b) Variable velocity. Fig. 2.1. Graphical representation of displacement with respect to time. Consider a point P on the s-t curve and let this point travels to Q by a small distance δs in a small interval of time δt. Let the chord joining the points Pand Q makes an angle θ with the horizontal. The average velocity of the moving point during the interval PQ is given by tan θ = δs / δt . . . (From triangle PQR ) In the limit, when δt approaches to zero, the point Q will tend to approach Pand the chord PQ becomes tangent to the curve at point P. Thus the velocity at P, vp = tan θ = ds /dt where tan θ is the slope of the tangent at P. Thus the slope of the tangent at any instant on the s-t curve gives the velocity at that instant. 2.10. Graphical Representation of Velocity with Respect to Time We shall consider the following two cases : 1. When the body moves with uniform velocity. When the body moves with zero acceleration, then the body is said to move with a uniform velocity and the velocity-time curve (v-t curve) is represented by a straight line as shown by A B in Fig. 2.2 (a). We know that distance covered by a body in time t second =Area under the v-t curve A B = Area of rectangle OABC Thus, the distance covered by a body at any interval of time is given by the area under the v-t curve. 2. When the body moves with variable velocity. When the body moves with constant acceleration, the body is said to move with variable velocity. In such a case, there is equal variation of velocity in equal intervals of time and the velocity-time curve will be a straight line AB inclined at an angle θ, as shown in Fig. 2.2 (b). The equations of motion i.e. v = u + a.t, and s = u.t + 1 2 a.t2 may be verified from this v-t curve.

20. 12 l Theory of Machines Let u = Initial velocity of a moving body, and v = Final velocity of a moving body after time t. Then, Changein velocity tan Acceleration ( ) Time BC v u a AC t − θ = = = = (a) Uniform velocity. (b) Variable velocity. Fig. 2.2. Graphical representation of velocity with respect to time. Thus, the slope of the v-t curve represents the acceleration of a moving body. Now tan − = θ = = BC v u a AC t or v = u + a.t Since the distance moved by a body is given by the area under the v-t curve, therefore distance moved in time (t), s = Area OABD = Area OACD + Area ABC 21 1 2 2 . ( ) . .u t v u t u t a t= + − = + ... (3 v – u = a.t) 2.11. Graphical Representation of Acceleration with Respect to Time (a) Uniform velocity. (b) Variable velocity. Fig. 2.3. Graphical representation of acceleration with respect to time. We shall consider the following two cases : 1. When the body moves with uniform acceleration. When the body moves with uniform acceleration, the acceleration-time curve (a-t curve) is a straight line, as shown in Fig. 2.3(a). Since the change in velocity is the product of the acceleration and the time, therefore the area under the a-t curve (i.e. OABC) represents the change in velocity. 2. When the body moves with variable acceleration. When the body moves with variable acceleration, the a-t curve may have any shape depending upon the values of acceleration at various instances, as shown in Fig. 2.3(b). Let at any instant of time t, the acceleration of moving body is a. Mathematically, a = dv / dt or dv = a.dt

21. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 13 Integrating both sides, 2 2 1 1 . v t v t dv a dt=∫ ∫ or 2 1 2 1 .− =∫ t t v v a dt where v1 and v2 are the velocities of the moving body at time intervals t1 and t2 respectively. The right hand side of the above expression represents the area (PQQ1P1) under the a-t curve between the time intervals t1 and t2 . Thus the area under the a-t curve between any two ordinates represents the change in velocity of the moving body. If the initial and final velocities of the body are u and v, then the above expression may be written as 0 . t v u a d t− = =∫ Area under a-t curve A B = Area OABC Example 2.1. A car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly to a speed of 72 km. p.h. over a distance of 500 m. Calculate the acceleration and the time taken to attain the speed. If a further acceleration raises the speed to 90 km. p.h. in 10 seconds, find this acceleration and the further distance moved. The brakes are now applied to bring the car to rest under uniform retardation in 5 seconds. Find the distance travelled during braking. Solution. Given : u = 0 ; v = 72 km. p.h. = 20 m/s ; s = 500 m First of all, let us consider the motion of the car from rest. Acceleration of the car Let a = Acceleration of the car. We know that v2 = u2 + 2 a.s ∴ (20)2 = 0 + 2a × 500 = 1000 a or a = (20)2/ 1000 = 0.4 m/s2 Ans. Time taken by the car to attain the speed Let t = Time taken by the car to attain the speed. We know that v = u + a.t ∴ 20 = 0 + 0.4 × t or t = 20/0.4 = 50 s Ans. Now consider the motion of the car from 72 km.p.h. to 90 km.p.h. in 10 seconds. Given : * u = 72 km.p.h. = 20 m/s ; v = 96 km.p.h. = 25 m/s ; t = 10 s Acceleration of the car Let a = Acceleration of the car. We know that v = u + a.t 25 = 20 + a × 10 or a = (25 – 20)/10 = 0.5 m/s2 Ans. Distance moved by the car We know that distance moved by the car, 2 21 1 2 2 . . 20 10 0.5(10) 225ms u t a t= + = × + × = Ans. * It is the final velocity in the first case.

22. 14 l Theory of Machines Now consider the motion of the car during the application of brakes for brining it to rest in 5 seconds. Given : *u = 25 m/s ; v = 0 ; t = 5 s We know that the distance travelled by the car during braking, 25 0 5 62.5m 2 2 u v s t + + = × = × = Ans. Example 2.2. The motion of a particle is given by a = t3 – 3t2 + 5, where a is the acceleration in m/s2 and t is the time in seconds. The velocity of the particle at t = 1 second is 6.25 m/s, and the displacement is 8.30 metres. Calculate the displacement and the velocity at t = 2 seconds. Solution. Given : a = t3 – 3t2 + 5 We know that the acceleration, a = dv/dt. Therefore the above equation may be written as 3 2 3 5= − + dv t t dt or 3 2 ( 3 5)= − +dv t t dt Integrating both sides 4 3 4 3 1 1 3 5 5 4 3 4 = − + + = − + + t t t v t C t t C ...(i) where C1 is the first constant of integration. We know that when t = 1 s, v = 6.25 m/s. Therefore substituting these values of t and v in equation (i), 6.25 = 0.25 – 1 + 5 + C1 = 4.25 + C1 or C1 = 2 Now substituting the value of C1 in equation (i), 34 5 2 4 = − + + t v t t ...(ii) Velocity at t = 2 seconds Substituting the value of t = 2 s in the above equation, 4 32 2 5 2 2 8 m/s 4 v = − + × + = Ans. Displacement at t = 2 seconds We know that the velocity, v = ds/dt, therefore equation (ii) may be written as 4 4 3 3 5 2 or 5 2 4 4 ds t t t t ds t t dt dt = − + + = − + + Integrating both sides, 5 4 2 2 5 2 20 4 2 t t t s t C= − + + + ...(iii) where C2 is the second constant of integration. We know that when t = 1 s, s = 8.30 m. Therefore substituting these values of t and s in equation (iii), 2 2 1 1 5 8.30 2 4.3 20 4 2 C C= − + + + = + or C2 = 4 * It is the final velocity in the second case.

23. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 15 Substituting the value of C2 in equation (iii), 5 4 2 5 2 4 20 4 2 = − + + + t t t s t Substituting the value of t = 2 s, in this equation, 5 4 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 4 15.6m 20 4 2 × = − + + × + =s Ans. Example 2.3. The velocity of a train travelling at 100 km/h decreases by 10 per cent in the first 40 s after applica- tion of the brakes. Calculate the velocity at the end of a further 80 s assuming that, during the whole period of 120 s, the re- tardation is proportional to the velocity. Solution. Given : Velocity in the beginning (i.e. when t = 0), v0 = 100 km/h Since the velocity decreases by 10 per cent in the first 40 seconds after the application of brakes, therefore velocity at the end of 40 s, v40 = 100 × 0.9 = 90 km/h Let v120 = Velocity at the end of 120 s (or further 80s). Since the retardation is proportional to the velocity, therefore, .= − = dv a k v dt or .= − dv k dt v where k is a constant of proportionality, whose value may be determined from the given conditions. Integrating the above expression, loge v = – k.t + C ... (i) where C is the constant of integration. We know that when t = 0, v = 100 km/h. Substituting these values in equation (i), loge100 = C or C = 2.3 log 100 = 2.3 × 2 = 4.6 We also know that when t = 40 s, v = 90 km/h. Substituting these values in equation (i), loge 90 = – k × 40 + 4.6 ...( 3 C = 4.6 ) 2.3 log 90 = – 40k + 4.6 or 4.6 2.3log 90 4.6 2.3 1.9542 0.0026 40 40 − − × = = =k Substituting the values of k and C in equation (i), loge v = – 0.0026 × t + 4.6 or 2.3 log v = – 0.0026 × t + 4.6 ... (ii) Now substituting the value of t equal to 120 s, in the above equation, 2.3 log v120 = – 0.0026 × 120 + 4.6 = 4.288 or log v120 = 4.288 / 2.3 = 1.864 ∴ v120 = 73.1 km/h Ans. ... (Taking antilog of 1.864)

24. 16 l Theory of Machines Example 2.4. The acceleration (a) of a slider block and its displacement (s) are related by the expression, =a k s , where k is a constant. The velocity v is in the direction of the displacement and the velocity and displacement are both zero when time t is zero. Calculate the displacement, velocity and acceleration as functions of time. Solution. Given : =a k s We know that acceleration, dv a v ds = × or dv k s v ds = × ... dv ds dv dv v dt dt ds ds = × = × 3 ∴ v × dv = k.s1/2 ds Integrating both sides, 1/ 2 0 . =∫ ∫ v v dv k s ds or 2 3/ 2 1 . 2 3/ 2 = + v k s C ... (i) where C1 is the first constant of integration whose value is to be determined from the given conditions of motion. We know that s = 0, when v = 0. Therefore, substituting the values of s and v in equation (i), we get C1 = 0. ∴ 2 3/22 . 2 3 = v k s or 3/ 44 3 = × k v s ... (ii) Displacement, velocity and acceleration as functions of time We know that 3/44 3 = = × ds k v s dt ... [From equation (ii)] ∴ 3/4 4 3 ds k dt s = or 3/4 4 3 − = k s ds dt Integrating both sides, 3/ 4 0 0 4 3 − =∫ ∫ s tk s ds dt 1/ 4 2 4 1/ 4 3 = × + s k t C ...(iii) where C2 is the second constant of integration. We know that displacement, s = 0 when t = 0. There- fore, substituting the values of s and t in equation (iii), we get C2 = 0. ∴ 1/ 4 4 1/ 4 3 = × s k t or 2 4 . 144 = k t s Ans. We know that velocity, 2 2 3 3 . 4 144 36 = = × = ds k k t v t dt Ans. 2 4 . ... Differentiating 144 k t and acceleration, 2 2 2 2 . 3 36 12 = = × = dv k k t a t dt Ans. 2 3 . ... Differentiating 36 k t

25. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 17 Example 2.5. The cutting stroke of a planing machine is 500 mm and it is completed in 1 second. The planing table accelerates uniformly during the first 125 mm of the stroke, the speed remains constant during the next 250 mm of the stroke and retards uniformly during the last 125 mm of the stroke. Find the maximum cutting speed. Solution. Given : s = 500 mm ; t = 1 s ; s1 = 125 mm ; s2 = 250 mm ; s3 = 125 mm Fig. 2.4 shows the acceleration-time and veloc- ity-time graph for the planing table of a planing machine. Let v = Maximum cutting speed in mm/s. Average velocity of the table during acceleration and retardation, (0 )/2 /2= + =avv v v Time of uniform acceleration 1 1 125 250 s / 2av s t v v v = = = Time of constant speed, 2 2 250 s s t v v = = and time of uniform retardation, 3 3 125 250 s / 2av s t v v v = = = Fig. 2.4 Since the time taken to complete the stroke is 1 s, therefore 1 2 3+ + =t t t t 250 250 250 1+ + = v v v or v = 750 mm/s Ans. 2.12. Angular Displacement It may be defined as the angle described by a particle from one point to another, with respect to the time. For example, let a line OB has its inclination θ radians to the fixed line OA, as shown in Planing Machine.

26. 18 l Theory of Machines Fig. 2.5. If this line moves from OB to OC, through an angle δθ during a short interval of time δt, then δθ is known as the angular displacement of the line OB. Since the angular displacement has both magnitude and direction, therefore it is also a vector quantity. 2.13. Representation of Angular Displacement by a Vector In order to completely represent an angular displacement, by a vector, it must fix the follow- ing three conditions : 1. Direction of the axis of rotation. It is fixed by drawing a line perpendicular to the plane of rotation, in which the angular displacement takes place. In other words, it is fixed along the axis of rotation. 2. Magnitude of angular displacement. It is fixed by the length of the vector drawn along the axis of rotation, to some suitable scale. 3. Sense of the angular displacement. It is fixed by a right hand screw rule. This rule states that if a screw rotates in a fixed nut in a clockwise direction, i.e. if the angular displacement is clockwise and an observer is looking along the axis of rotation, then the arrow head will point away from the observer. Similarly, if the angular displacement is anti-clockwise, then the arrow head will point towards the observer. 2.14. Angular Velocity It may be defined as the rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time. It is usually expressed by a Greek letter ω (omega). Mathematically, angular velocity, /ω = θd dt Since it has magnitude and direction, therefore, it is a vector quantity. It may be represented by a vector following the same rule as described in the previous article. Note : If the direction of the angular displacement is constant, then the rate of change of magnitude of the angular displacement with respect to time is termed as angular speed. 2.15. Angular Acceleration It may be defined as the rate of change of angular velocity with respect to time. It is usually expressed by a Greek letter α (alpha). Mathematically, angular acceleration, 2 2 ω θ θ α = = = d d d d dt dt dt dt ... d dt θ ω = 3 It is also a vector quantity, but its direction may not be same as that of angular displacement and angular velocity. 2.16. Equations of Angular Motion The following equations of angular motion corresponding to linear motion are important from the subject point of view : 1. 0 .ω = ω + α t 2. 2 0 1 . . 2 θ = ω + αt t 3. ( )22 0 2 .ω = ω + α θ 4. ( )0 2 ω + ω θ = t where ω0 = Initial angular velocity in rad/s, ω = Final angular velocity in rad/s, Fig. 2.5. Angular displacement.

27. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 19 Fig. 2.6. Motion of a body along a circular path. t = Time in seconds, θ = Angular displacement in time t seconds, and α = Angular acceleration in rad / s2. Note : If a body is rotating at the rate of N r.p.m. (revolutions per minute), then its angular velocity, ω = 2πΝ / 60 rad/s 2.17. Relation between Linear Motion and Angular Motion Following are the relations between the linear motion and the angular motion : Particulars Linear motion Angular motion Initial velocity u ω0 Final velocity v ω Constant acceleration a α Total distance traversed s θ Formula for final velocity v = u + a.t ω = ω0 + α.t Formula for distance traversed s = u.t + 1 2 a.t2 θ = ω0. t + 1 2 α.t2 Formula for final velocity v2 = u2 + 2 a.s ω = (ω0) 2 + 2 α.θ 2.18. Relation between Linear and Angular Quantities of Motion Consider a body moving along a circular path from A to B as shown in Fig. 2.6. Let r = Radius of the circular path, θ = Angular displacement in radians, s = Linear displacement, v = Linear velocity, ω = Angular velocity, a = Linear acceleration, and α = Angular acceleration. From the geometry of the figure, we know that s = r . θ We also know that the linear velocity, ( . ) . θ θ = = = × = ω ds d r d v r r dt dt dt ... (i) and linear acceleration, ( . ) . ω ω = = = × = α dv d r d a r r dt dt dt ... (ii) Example 2.6. A wheel accelerates uniformly from rest to 2000 r.p.m. in 20 seconds. What is its angular acceleration? How many revolutions does the wheel make in attaining the speed of 2000 r.p.m.? Solution. Given : N0 = 0 or ω = 0 ; N = 2000 r.p.m. or ω = 2π × 2000/60 = 209.5 rad/s ; t = 20s Angular acceleration Let α = Angular acceleration in rad/s2. We know that ω = ω0 + α.t or 209.5 = 0 + α × 20 ∴ α = 209.5 / 20 = 10.475 rad/s2 Ans.

28. 20 l Theory of Machines Number of revolutions made by the wheel We know that the angular distance moved by the wheel during 2000 r.p.m. (i.e. when ω = 209.5 rad/s), ( ) ( )0 0 209.5 20 2095 2 2 ω + ω + θ = = = t rad Since the angular distance moved by the wheel during one revolution is 2π radians, therefore number of revolutions made by the wheel, n = θ /2π = 2095/2π = 333.4 Ans. 2.19. Acceleration of a Particle along a Circular Path Consider A and B, the two positions of a particle displaced through an angle δθ in time δt as shown in Fig. 2.7 (a). Let r = Radius of curvature of the circular path, v = Velocity of the particle at A, and v + dv = Velocity of the particle at B. The change of velocity, as the particle moves from A to B may be obtained by drawing the vector triangle oab, as shown in Fig. 2.7 (b). In this triangle, oa represents the velocity v and ob represents the velocity v + dv. The change of velocity in time δt is represented by ab. Fig. 2.7. Acceleration of a particle along a circular path. Now, resolving ab into two components i.e. parallel and perpendicular to oa. Let ac and cb be the components parallel and perpendicular to oa respectively. ∴ ac = oc – oa = ob cos δθ – oa = (v + δv) cos δθ – v and cb = ob sin δθ = (v + δv) sin δθ Since the change of velocity of a particle (represented by vector ab) has two mutually perpendicular components, therefore the acceleration of a particle moving along a circular path has the following two components of the acceleration which are perpendicular to each other. 1. Tangential component of the acceleration. The acceleration of a particle at any instant moving along a circular path in a direction tangential to that instant, is known as tangential component of acceleration or tangential acceleration. ∴ Tangential component of the acceleration of particle at A or tangential acceleration at A, ( )cos+ δ δθ − = = δ δ t ac v v v a t t In the limit, when δt approaches to zero, then / .= = αta dv dt r ... (i) 2. Normal component of the acceleration. The acceleration of a particle at any instant mov- ing along a circular path in a direction normal to the tangent at that instant and directed towards the centre of the circular path (i.e. in the direction from A to O) is known as normal component of the

29. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 21 acceleration or normal acceleration. It is also called radial or centripetal acceleration. ∴ Normal component of the acceleration of the particle at A or normal (or radial or centrip- etal) acceleration at A, ( )sin+ δ θ = = δ δ n v vcb a t t In the limit, when δt approaches to zero, then 2 2 . . θ = × = ω = × = = ωn d v v a v v v r dt r r ... (ii) [ ]... / , and /d dt v rθ = ω ω =3 Since the tangential acceleration (at) and the normal accelera- tion (an) of the particle at any instant A are perpendicular to each other, as shown in Fig. 2.8, therefore total acceleration of the particle (a) is equal to the resultant acceleration of at and an. ∴ Total acceleration or resultant acceleration, ( ) ( )2 2 = +t na a a and its angle of inclination with the tangential acceleration is given by tan θ = an/at or θ = tan–1 (an/at) The total acceleration or resultant acceleration may also be obtained by the vector sum of at and an. Notes : 1. From equations (i) and (ii) we see that the tangential acceleration (at ) is equal to the rate of change of the magnitude of the velocity whereas the normal or radial or centripetal acceleration (an) depends upon its instantaneous velocity and the radius of curvature of its path. 2. When a particle moves along a straight path, then the radius of curvature is infinitely great. This means that v2/r is zero. In other words, there will be no normal or radial or centripetal acceleration. Therefore, the particle has only tangential acceleration (in the same direction as its velocity and displacement) whose value is given by at = dv/dt = α.r 3. When a particle moves with a uniform velocity, then dv/dt will be zero. In other words, there will be no tangential acceleration; but the particle will have only normal or radial or centripetal acceleration, whose value is given by an = v2/r = v.ω = ω2 r Example 2.7. A horizontal bar 1.5 metres long and of small cross-section rotates about vertical axis through one end. It accelerates uniformly from 1200 r.p.m. to 1500 r.p.m. in an interval of 5 seconds. What is the linear velocity at the beginning and end of the interval ? What are the normal and tangential components of the acceleration of the mid-point of the bar after 5 seconds after the acceleration begins ? Solution. Given : r = 1.5 m ; N0 = 1200 r.p.m. or ω0 = 2 π × 1200/60 = 125.7 rad/s ; N = 1500 r.p.m. or ω = 2 π × 1500/60 = 157 rad/s ; t = 5 s Linear velocity at the beginning We know that linear velocity at the beginning, v0 = r . ω0 = 1.5 × 125.7 = 188.6 m/s Ans. Linear velocity at the end of 5 seconds We also know that linear velocity after 5 seconds, v5 = r . ω = 1.5 × 157 = 235.5 m/s Ans. Fig. 2.8. Total acceleration of a particle.

30. 22 l Theory of Machines Tangential acceleration after 5 seconds Let α = Constant angular acceleration. We know that ω = ω0+ α.t 157 = 125.7 + α × 5 or α = (157 – 125.7) /5 = 6.26 rad/s2 Radius corresponding to the middle point, r = 1.5 /2 = 0.75 m ∴ Tangential acceleration = α. r = 6.26 × 0.75 = 4.7 m/s2 Ans. Radial acceleration after 5 seconds Radial acceleration = ω2 . r = (157)2 0.75 = 18 487 m/s2 Ans. EXERCISES 1. A winding drum raises a cage through a height of 120 m. The cage has, at first, an acceleration of 1.5 m/s2 until the velocity of 9 m/s is reached, after which the velocity is constant until the cage nears the top, when the final retardation is 6 m/s2. Find the time taken for the cage to reach the top. [ Ans. 17.1s ] 2. The displacement of a point is given by s = 2t3 + t2 + 6, where s is in metres and t in seconds. Determine the displacement of the point when the velocity changes from 8.4 m/s to 18 m/s. Find also the acceleration at the instant when the velocity of the particle is 30 m/s. [ Ans. 6.95 m ; 27 m/s2 ] 3. A rotating cam operates a follower which moves in a straight line. The stroke of the follower is 20 mm and takes place in 0.01 second from rest to rest. The motion is made up of uniform acceleration for 1/4 of the time, uniform velocity for 1 2 of the time followed by uniform retardation. Find the maximum velocity reached and the value of acceleration and retardation. [ Ans. 2.67 m/s ; 1068 m/s2 ; 1068 m/s2 ] 4. A cage descends a mine shaft with an acceleration of 0.5 m/s2. After the cage has travelled 25 metres, a stone is dropped from the top of the shaft. Determine : 1. the time taken by the stone to hit the cage, and 2. distance travelled by the cage before impact. [ Ans. 2.92 s ; 41.73 m ] 5. The angular displacement of a body is a function of time and is given by equation : θ = 10 + 3 t + 6 t2, where t is in seconds. Determine the angular velocity, displacement and acceleration when t = 5 seconds. State whether or not it is a case of uniform angular acceleration. [Ans. 63 rad/s ; 175 rad ; 12 rad/s2] 6. A flywheel is making 180 r.p.m. and after 20 seconds it is running at 140 r.p.m. How many revolu- tions will it make, and what time will elapse before it stops, if the retardation is uniform ? [ Ans. 135 rev. ; 90 s ] 7. A locomotive is running at a constant speed of 100 km / h. The diameter of driving wheels is 1.8 m. The stroke of the piston of the steam engine cylinder of the locomotive is 600 mm. Find the centrip- etal acceleration of the crank pin relative to the engine frame. [ Ans. 288 m/s2 ] DO YOU KNOW ? 1. Distinguish clearly between speed and velocity. Give examples. 2. What do you understand by the term ‘acceleration’ ? Define positive acceleration and negative accel- eration. 3. Define ‘angular velocity’ and ‘angular acceleration’. Do they have any relation between them ? 4. How would you find out the linear velocity of a rotating body ? 5. Why the centripetal acceleration is zero, when a particle moves along a straight path ? 6. A particle moving with a uniform velocity has no tangential acceleration. Explain clearly.

31. Chapter 2 : Kinematics of Motion l 23 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS 1. The unit of linear acceleration is (a) kg-m (b) m/s (c) m/s2 (d) rad/s2 2. The angular velocity (in rad/s) of a body rotating at N r.p.m. is (a) π N/60 (b) 2 π N/60 (c) π N/120 (d) π N/180 3. The linear velocity of a body rotating at ω rad/s along a circular path of radius r is given by (a) ω.r (b) ω/r (c) ω2.r (d) ω2/r 4. When a particle moves along a straight path, then the particle has (a) tangential acceleration only (b) centripetal acceleration only (c) both tangential and centripetal acceleration 5. When a particle moves with a uniform velocity along a circular path, then the particle has (a) tangential acceleration only (b) centripetal acceleration only (c) both tangential and centripetal acceleration ANSWERS 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (b) GO To FIRST

32. 24 Theory of Machines 24 Kinetics of Motion 3Features 1. Introduction. 2. Newton's Laws of Motion. 3. Mass and Weight. 4. Momentum. 5. Force. 6. Absolute and Gravitational

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