Theorist Information

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Published on December 16, 2008

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PSYCHOLOGYSchools of Thought & Theorist Information : PSYCHOLOGYSchools of Thought & Theorist Information Fall 2006 Mrs. Bailey Schools of Thought : Schools of Thought Biological Behaviorist Psychoanalytic Humanist Cognitive BIOLOGICAL : BIOLOGICAL Stress the genetic, medical, and neurological components of the person Behavior is influenced by biological factors Changes in the body help determine actions and behavior changes Also known as neuropsychology, biopsychology, psychobiology, behavioral neuroscience, and physiological psychology BEHAVIORIST : BEHAVIORIST Stress the connection between stimulus/response and behavior/reward View the environment as instrumental in behavior Behavior is determined by the actions that are/were rewarded or punished Edward Thorndike : Edward Thorndike Law of Effect Behavior that is followed by consequences satisfying to the organism will be repeated, and behavior that is followed by noxious or unpleasant consequences will be discouraged John B. Watson - Behaviorist : John B. Watson - Behaviorist Inspired by Ivan Pavlov Dismissed heredity as a significant factor is determining human behavior Believed humans were more complicated than animals, but operated on the same principles Published an article on his studies and essentially started Behaviorist Psychology B.F. Skinner - Behaviorist : B.F. Skinner - Behaviorist Excited by the work of Watson and Pavlov Determined it was not the stimulus, but rather the after effect that prompted behavior Coined the term Operant Behavior and Operant Conditioning Developed Programmed Instruction Ivan Pavlov : Ivan Pavlov Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1904 Studied the digestive process/determined it is controlled by the nervous system Discovered “conditioned reflexes” PSYCHOANALYTIC : PSYCHOANALYTIC Behavior is determined by primal drives and the experiences of early childhood Emphasizes the unconscious mind Some focus on the relevance of feelings of inferiority Others stress the resolution of psychosocial or psychosexual conflicts Sigmund Freud : Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development Influential - global theory - rules for predicting behavior Two basic instincts – sexual and aggressive Three levels of consciousness – Id, Ego, and Superego Erik Erikson : Erik Erikson 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Extends Freudian psychosexual theory Encompasses entire life cycle Concept of identity crisis Recognizes influence of society, history & culture on personality Slide 15: Erikson’s 8 Stages Karen Horney : Karen Horney Conditions of Learning The Neurotic Personality of Our Time Neurotic Needs Basic Neurotic Needs That: : Basic Neurotic Needs That: Move an individual toward people Affection and approval Fear of being alone/need for “partner” Prestige/self-confidence and personal identity rest on the expectation of receiving recognition from others Personal admiration Move an individual away from people Restrict one’s life within narrow borders Self-sufficiency and independence Perfection/mistakes are seen as weakness Move an individual against people Power and control/do anything to obtain them Exploit others/relieves feelings of helplessness and insecurity Personal achievement/achieve more, even at expense of others **See page 213 of our text Carl Jung : Carl Jung Personality Archetypes Personal Unconscious Collective Unconscious Introversion and Extroversion Believed in primitive, spiritual, and moral aspects of life Analytic Psychology Jung’s Archetypes : Jung’s Archetypes Persona people wear masks in public to hide their true nature Respond to social pressures, traditions, need for acceptance Anima and animus – elements of the opposite sex Anima/female side of men Animus/male side of women Provide shading and balance to the personality, enable sexes to understand and respond to each other Shadow Primitive side of personality Hide socially unacceptable thoughts/desires/traits behind persona Self Regarded as life goal-strive for unity and completeness Joining of conscious and unconscious mind to be completed self Alfred Adler : Alfred Adler “Individual psychology” Placed social needs on an equal basis with Freud’s sex drives Social urges “Creative self” – inner system that guides the individual toward a fulfilling life 1870-1937, a Viennese psychiatrist Adler’s other concepts : Adler’s other concepts Feelings of Inferiority Compensation/attempt to deal with specific causes Fictional Finalism Driven by ideals that may be pure fiction, but pursue with great determination Social Interest Desire to make community a better place to live HUMANIST : HUMANIST Emphasize the concept that people are in control of their own destiny People try to satisfy both basic and enriching needs – striving for personal achievement Self-concept is important Emphasize the inherent worth of the individual Abraham Maslow : Abraham Maslow Self Actualization Hierarchy of Needs Believed psychology should study healthy people People basically good If basic needs are met, then happy, productive lives result 1908-1970, American Psychologist Basic or Deficiency Needs : Basic or Deficiency Needs Physiological Needs Body’s requirements Safety Needs Feeling safe/secure Love Belong to groups, receive/give affection, maintain friendships Esteem Recognition, achievement, competence Cognitive Need to know, understand, explore Aesthetic Desire to bring beauty & order to one’s life Self-actualization Desire for self-fulfillment Realization of individual potential Metaneeds Maslow on Human NatureFive Basic Concepts : Maslow on Human NatureFive Basic Concepts Essential nature of needs, capacities, and tendencies are good To reach maturity, people should grow from within rather than be shaped from without to fulfill their potential Mental illness results when basic needs are not satisfied, which twists their inner nature Inner nature is weak, delicate, subtle which can be stunted by cultural pressures Potential goodness is seen as people mature or become self-actualized Self-actualized people : Self-actualized people Perceive reality better than most individuals Accept themselves, others, natural world – do not worry about what cannot control Spontaneous thoughts/behavior but not bizarre or unusual behaviors Focus on problems outside selves, not self-centered Do not allow social pressures to rule lives Continued enjoyment from activities they’ve done many times before Open to spiritual or mystic experiences, not necessarily religious Identify with humanity in a positive manner Deep emotional relationships with a limited number of people Democratic in values and attitudes – free of prejudice Enjoy process of reaching and achievement of goals Enjoy humorous situation without turning the humor into hostility Capable of great creativity in different manners Part of culture, but do not blindly conform to standards Carl Rogers : Carl Rogers Client Centered Therapy 3 Basic Rules Limitations Experiential Learning Nondirective therapy 1902-1987, American Psychologist COGNITIVE : COGNITIVE Focus on the mental processing of the individual Difficulties often stem from false perceptions of reality People develop ideas of the world and base their judgments upon these perceptions Some theorists believe it is stage related Elizabeth Kubler-Ross : Elizabeth Kubler-Ross Death and Bereavement Allow dying to have dignity and humanity Wrote On Death and Dying See bio box on page 428-429 1926- , Switzerland Kubler-Ross Model : Kubler-Ross Model Jerome Bruner : Jerome Bruner Constructivism – Applied to Education Constructivist Theory Discovery Learning "Learners are encouraged to discover facts and relationships for themselves." 1915 - , American Noam Chomsky : Noam Chomsky Language/Linguistics Theory of Generative Grammar Chomsky Hierarchy 1928- , Professor at MIT Howard Gardner : Howard Gardner Theories of Multiple Intelligence Argued Intelligence tests only focus on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences Lawrence Kohlberg : Lawrence Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development Found judgment of behavior varied with level of moral development Focused on HOW people make decisions not on the behavior that might result from the decisions Role playing – consider moral dilemmas from another’s point of view Harvard Psychologist Lev Vygotsky : Lev Vygotsky Social interaction plays a vital role in the development of cognition Zone of Proximal Development Difference between what a child can do with help and without guidance 1896-1934 , Russian Psychologist Jean Piaget : Jean Piaget Four Stages of Cognitive Development Assimilation Absorbing new concepts and experiences, incorporating them into existing cognitive structures/behaviors Accommodation Modifying previously developed though processes/behaviors to adapt to a new concept or experience Stressed parental love and interaction, physical and intellectual stimulation 1896-1980, Swiss Psychologist Slide 42: Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Albert Bandura : Albert Bandura Observational Learning Theory or Social Learning Theory People can learn by observing and imitating the behavior of others Often considered the “father” of the cognitist movement 1925- , Canadian/Stanford Psychologist

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