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Information about TheLowerExtremity

Published on December 1, 2007

Author: miloung


The Lower Extremity:  The Lower Extremity BIOL 1010 Slide2:  FEMUR Slide5:  TIBIA Slide6:  FIBULA Slide7:  ERROR: #7 is CUBOID #4 is LATERAL CUNEIFORM Slide8:  Very similar to the upper extremity Some definitions: a. Thigh – part from the hips to knees b. Leg – part from the knee to the ankle Note that the hip joint is a ball and socket joint. It allows movement in all direction. The knee only allows flexion and extension – not circumduction. It is never normal for hyperextension of knee (genu recurvatum) Slide9:  In humans, the abdominal aorta terminates into the common iliac arteries. The common iliacs divide into the external and internal iliacs. In humans, the aorta terminates as the middle sacral artery. CAT Slide10:  The nerves of the lower extremity are simpler than the upper limb. There are three nerves entering the thigh. Their lateral branches serve the gluteal muscles. femoral nerve L2,3,4 anterior compartment obturator nerve L2,3,4 medial compartment sciatic nerve L4,5,S1,2,3 (sacral plexus) posterior compartment Slide11:  The only one of the three that travel below the knee is the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve branches into two nerve: 1. tibial nerve 2. common peroneal nerve a. Superficial peroneal nerve b. Deep peroneal nerve Slide12:  femur medial lateral Anterior compartment- Extensors of the knee Femoral Nerve Medial compartment- Adductors of the knee Obturator Nerve Posterior compartment- Flexors of the knee Sciatic Nerve Slide13:  The anterior compartment of the thigh is homologous to the posterior compartment of the arm. The posterior compartment of the thigh is homologous to the anterior compartment of the arm. Slide14:  The leg has three compartments Anterior compartment - dorsiflexors (flexors) of the foot - deep peroneal nerve Posterior compartment - plantarflexors (extensors) of the foot - tibial nerve Lateral compartment - extensors of the foot - superficial peroneal nerve Slide17:  The FASCIA LATA (not to be confused with the muscle of similar name) is connective tissue on the lateral side of the femur. This forms the ILIOTIBIAL BAND. This band connects the ilium and tibia and is the site of inflammation in runners – iliotibial band syndrome. Muscles of the Medial Compartment of the Thigh Obturator Nerve:  Muscles of the Medial Compartment of the Thigh Obturator Nerve Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of the Thigh Tibial portion of Sciatic Nerve:  Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of the Thigh Tibial portion of Sciatic Nerve Muscles of Anterior Thigh *Femoral Nerve:  Muscles of Anterior Thigh *Femoral Nerve Slide22:  The rectus femoris cross two joints, therefore it has actions on the two joints involved. The patella is articulates with the FEMUR, not the tibia. The patella is attached to the femur and tibia by the PATELLAR LIGAMENT. When this ligament is pulled, the patella is lifted superiorly and brings the leg into an extended position. In the posterior leg, the GASTROCNEMIUS muscle is responsible for plantarflexion. It originates at the femur and inserts on the posterior surface of the calcaneus. It crosses two joints so it can flex the knee and plantarflex (extend) the foot. It is innervated by the tibial nerve. Slide23:  L2 L3 L4 iliopsoas Rectus femoris pectineus Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius sartorius Vastus lateralis Motor Branches of the Femoral Nerve Slide24:  Adductus magnus gracilis Adductor longus Adductor brevis Motor Branches of the Obturator Nerve Slide25:  L4 L5 S1 S2 S3 Semitendinosis Biceps femoris semimembranosus Hamstrings Gastrocnemius and posterior compartment of the leg and foot Tibial nerve Common peroneal nerve Deep peroneal nerve Anterior compartment of leg Lateral compartment of leg Superficial peroneal nerve Motor Branches of the Sciatic Nerve Slide26:  calcaneus talus cuboid navicular Medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms metatarsals phalanges The Foot Slide27:  Anterior Leg Structures - Superficial Identify the Following: Tibialis Anterior Peroneus Longs Peroneus Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Patellar Tendon Patella Tibia Peroneus Tertius Extensor Hallucis Longus Popliteus Tendon Sartorius Tendon Slide28:  Posterior Leg Structures - Superficial Identify the Following: Femur Tibia Fibula Soleus Achilles Tendon Plantaris Popliteus Calcaneus Slide29:  Posterior Leg Structures - Deep Identify the Following: Achilles Tendon Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Calcaneus Talus Tibia Fibula Femur Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot:  Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot These muscles all originate and insert on foot bones. They help to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct the toes. All the intrinsic muscles of the foot are found on the plantar surface (except the one on the dorsal aspect). The plantar muscles are arranged in 4 layers, from superficial to deep. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot:  Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot

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