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TheatreHistoryO

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Information about TheatreHistoryO
Entertainment

Published on October 17, 2007

Author: Dabby

Source: authorstream.com

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Highlights of Western Theatre:  Highlights of Western Theatre A Brief Overview Egyptian Roots :  Egyptian Roots c.2500 bc Ritual Enactment Abydos Passion Play re-enacted the story of the death and resurrection of Osiris Greek Festivals:  Greek Festivals Ritual Competitions Festivals honored Olympian gods Olympics: Apollo Athletics Lyric Poetry Drama: Dionysos Dithyrambic Choruses Tragedy Comedy Greek Theatre:  Greek Theatre 6th - 4th century bc Originated in festivals honoring Dionysos Thespis (6th c. bc) Tragedy: Aeschylus (524-456 bc) Sophocles (496-406 bc) Euripides (480-406 bc) Comedy: Aristophanes (c. 485- c.385 bc) Old Comedy: bawdy and satiric New Comedy: social situations Roman Theatre:  Roman Theatre 2nd c. bc - 4th c. ad Origins in Greek drama and Roman festivals Tragedy: Seneca 5 act structure Revenge motif -- sensationalistic Ghosts and supernatural Comedy:Terence and Plautus Boy meets girl, complications, boy gets girl: marriage Bawdy Stock characters Roman Spectacle:  Roman Spectacle Gladiatorial combats Naval battles in a flooded Coliseum “Real-life” theatricals Decadent, violent and immoral All theatrical events banned by Church when Rome became Christianized Medieval Drama: 13th-15th C.:  Medieval Drama: 13th-15th C. Arose from need to educate converted, illiterate Christians about Christianity Hrotsvita (10th c.), German nun, wrote plays about Christian matyrs using structure based on Terence’s Roman comedies Liturgical drama Mystery plays: Biblical stories Miracle plays: Saints’ lives Morality plays: Allegories Italian Commedia dell’ Arte:  Italian Commedia dell’ Arte La Commedia dell'Arte, "Artistic Comedy,” began in the second half of the 16th century Based on set pieces, lazzi, that are improvised with stock characters A very distinct group of actors gave birth to the first nucleus of companies, and started doing their acts on simple stages set outdoors The powerful mix of popular themes, complex stories with lots of climax, acrobatic jumps and mellow love scenes made it highly influential throughout Europe Harlequino Elizabethan Theatre: 16th-17th C.:  Elizabethan Theatre: 16th-17th C. Protestant Reformation closed down religious drama Tudor love of spectacle and patronage of drama Elizabethan poetry -- love of language Influenced by Roman theatre, Renaissance ideas, medieval stagecraft and pagan remnants Important theatrical period even if Shakespeare had never lived French Neoclassical Theatre, 17th-18th C.:  French Neoclassical Theatre, 17th-18th C. Modelled theatre on Greek and Roman examples Disdained English Elizabethan theatre’s “messiness” and eclecticism Neoclassical Conventions Decorum Verisimilitude Universal truths 5 act structure 3 unities: time, place action Tragedy and Comedy:  Tragedy and Comedy Rulers/nobility Affairs of state Unhappy ending Lofty poetic style Revealed the horrible results of mistakes and misdeeds committed from passion Racine Middle class/bourgeosie Domestic/private affairs Happy ending – often deus ex machina Ordinary speech Ridicules behavior that should be avoided Moliere German Romantic Theater 18th-19th C.:  German Romantic Theater 18th-19th C. “Sturm und Drang” Looked to Shakespeare for models Sweeping historical and tragic dramas Johann Goethe and Friedrich Schiller Began to emphasize historical accuracy in costumes and settings Improved theatrical effects -- footlights, revolving stages, theatrical machinery Melodrama: 19th C.:  Melodrama: 19th C. Theatre of sentimentality -- emotional appeal Heroes and villains -- and lily-pure heroines Wide popular appeal Sensationalistic Most widely performed play of the 19th C: Uncle Tom’s Cabin based on Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Realism and Naturalism 19th-20th C.:  Realism and Naturalism 19th-20th C. Intellectual reaction against popular theatre Theatre of social problems Influenced by emerging disciplines of psychology and sociology Emerging importance of director Realistic stage conventions: Proscenium stage Audience as “fourth wall” Change in acting conventions Continued developments in stagecraft Realism vs. Naturalism:  Realism vs. Naturalism Middle class Psychological How can the individual live within and influence society? “Well-made play” Henrik Ibsen, George Bernard Shaw Lower class Sociological How does society/the environment impact individuals? “Slice of life” August Strindberg, Anton Chekhov, 20th Century Theatre: a hundred years of isms:  20th Century Theatre: a hundred years of isms Symbolism Expressionism Futurism Dadism Surrealism Social Realism Epic Theatre Existentialism Magic Realism Hyper-Realism Not to mention musicals, films, street theatre, etc., etc. And so… into the 21st Century:  And so… into the 21st Century Anna in the Tropics by Nilo Cruz Winner of 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Drama

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