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The Unification of China

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Information about The Unification of China

Published on October 3, 2007

Author: albano

Source: slideshare.net

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Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman

I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age IV. The Later Han

I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age IV. The Later Han

Kung Fuzi (Confucius) Late 500s B.C.E. Wandering scholars Analects , collected sayings I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou Role of shi gives way to military, aristocracy Merchants become important A. Confucius and the Restoration of the Shi Concern with stability, peace Role of moral elite Education central B. The Confucian Gentleman Moral rectitude Public and private spheres equally important Kings should be reminded of duties

Kung Fuzi (Confucius)

Late 500s B.C.E.

Wandering scholars

Analects , collected sayings

I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou

Role of shi gives way to military, aristocracy

Merchants become important

A. Confucius and the Restoration of the Shi Concern with stability, peace

Role of moral elite

Education central

B. The Confucian Gentleman Moral rectitude Public and private spheres equally important Kings should be reminded of duties

I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou C. The Heirs of Confucius Division: Mencius, Sunzi Mencius Natural goodness Government should encourage goodness through consent Sunzi Natural weakness, evil Government must be strong Education improving Legalists D. Daoist Alternatives Laozi Philosopher Retreat from society State cannot solve all problems Nature Dao , cosmic force Meditation

I. Philosophical Remedies for the Prolonged Crisis of the Later Zhou

C. The Heirs of Confucius Division: Mencius, Sunzi

Mencius

Natural goodness

Government should encourage goodness

through consent Sunzi

Natural weakness, evil

Government must be strong

Education improving

Legalists

D. Daoist Alternatives Laozi

Philosopher Retreat from society

State cannot solve all problems

Nature

Dao , cosmic force

Meditation

II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity Qin Dynasty Originally nomadic, marginal Shi Huangdi Zhou rival c. 200 B.C.E. China from the Later Zhou to the Han Era

II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity Qin Dynasty Originally nomadic, marginal Shi Huangdi Zhou rival

c. 200 B.C.E.

II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity A. The Transformation of a “Barbarian” Land Reforms Improved technology Peasants freed Autonomous warrior lords weakened Shi used in bureaucracy Military transformed Influence of nomads Cavalry Crossbow B. The Legalists Shang Yang Absolute rulers under rule of law All to serve the state

II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity

A. The Transformation of a “Barbarian” Land

Reforms

Improved technology

Peasants freed

Autonomous warrior lords weakened Shi used in bureaucracy

Military transformed

Influence of nomads Cavalry

Crossbow B. The Legalists

Shang Yang

Absolute rulers under rule of law

All to serve the state

II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity C. Shi Huangdi, Emperor of China Unification by 221 B.C.E. Warriors disarmed Upper classes to live in capital Xianyang Unification: common writing, coinage, weights and measures Great Wall D. Opposition 207 B.C.E. , rebellion Lasting impact China from the Later Zhou to the Han Era

II. The Triumph of the Qin and Imperial Unity C. Shi Huangdi, Emperor of China Unification by 221 B.C.E. Warriors disarmed Upper classes to live in capital Xianyang Unification: common writing, coinage, weights and measures Great Wall

D. Opposition 207 B.C.E. , rebellion Lasting impact

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age Liu Bang (Gaozu) Peasant 202 B.C.E. , becomes first ruler A. The Restoration of Imperial Control Centralized state Expansion Hsiung-nu nomads Sporadically disruptive Realm extended to Korea and Vietnam Assimilation Education common

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age

Liu Bang (Gaozu)

Peasant

202 B.C.E. , becomes first ruler

A. The Restoration of Imperial Control Centralized state

Expansion

Hsiung-nu nomads

Sporadically disruptive

Realm extended to Korea and Vietnam

Assimilation

Education common

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age B. The Shi Legalists replaced by shi Dominance of Confucianism Basis of government exams Education, Examinations Examination system Meritocracy The Scholar-Gentry Basic strata: the shi, other free subjects, the “mean people” local property-owners linked to shi scholar-gentry

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age

B. The Shi Legalists replaced by shi Dominance of Confucianism

Basis of government exams

Education, Examinations Examination system Meritocracy

The Scholar-Gentry Basic strata: the shi, other free subjects, the “mean people”

local property-owners linked to shi

scholar-gentry

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age C. Class and Gender Roles in Han Society Peasants Range from dependent poor to more wealthy Production increased More land in cultivation Horse collar, wheelbarrow Formed secret societies Women More freedom in this period Upper classes Arranged marriages Education common Medicine: diagnosis, remedies, acupuncture

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age

C. Class and Gender Roles in Han Society

Peasants

Range from dependent poor to more wealthy

Production increased

More land in cultivation

Horse collar, wheelbarrow

Formed secret societies

Women

More freedom in this period Upper classes

Arranged marriages

Education common

Medicine: diagnosis, remedies, acupuncture

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age D. Towns and Commerce Xian, capital Walls, towers Grid pattern approx. 100,000 citizens approx. 100,000 in hinterland "Forbidden city“ Trade

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age

D. Towns and Commerce

Xian, capital

Walls, towers

Grid pattern

approx. 100,000 citizens

approx. 100,000 in hinterland "Forbidden city“

Trade

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age E. Arts and Sciences Invention Innovative period Paper Compasses Watermills Rudders Technology improves Art Decorative arts thrive Calligraphy Science Calendar: 365.5 Medicine: diagnosis, remedies, acupuncture

III. The Han Dynasty and the Foundations of China’s Classical Age E. Arts and Sciences

Invention

Innovative period

Paper

Compasses

Watermills

Rudders

Technology improves

Art

Decorative arts thrive

Calligraphy

Science

Calendar: 365.5

Medicine: diagnosis, remedies, acupuncture

IV. The Later Han A. Crisis Emperor's wives Wang family, 9 - 23 C.E. Wang Mang Overthrown by scholar-gentry and peasants B. Later Han Restoration, 23 C.E. Central power declines

IV. The Later Han

A. Crisis

Emperor's wives

Wang family, 9 - 23 C.E.

Wang Mang

Overthrown by scholar-gentry and peasants

B. Later Han

Restoration, 23 C.E. Central power declines

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