The temple mount

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Published on March 10, 2008

Author: Bernardo

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The Mystery of the Temple :  The Mystery of the Temple The Archaeological Origins of the Temple of David Slide2:  "As the navel is set in the centre of the human body, so is the land of Israel the navel of the world... situated in the centre of the world, and Jerusalem in the centre of the land of Israel, and the sanctuary in the centre of Jerusalem, and the holy place in the centre of the sanctuary, and the ark in the centre of the holy place, and the foundation stone before the holy place, because from it the world was founded.“ Midrash Tanchuma, Qedoshim. The History of the Temple:  The History of the Temple 1,000 B.C. E. The first altar is built on Mt. Moriah which becomes the Temple Mount. 950 B.C. E. The first Temple is built by Solomon and approximately 200,000 workers made of Limestone, cedar, gold, and silver. 587 B.C. E. The Temple is destroyed by the Babylonians. 541 B.C. E. The Jews return to the city and rebuild Temple at Mt. Moriah. The History of the Temple:  The History of the Temple 70 C. E. The second Temple destroyed by the Romans. 136 C. E. The Romans construct Temple of Jupiter on Temple Mt. 330-640 C. E. Christianization of the Roman Empire; Temple of Jupiter falls into ruin. 638 C. E. Muslim conquest of the Holy Land. 684-690 C. E. The Dome of the Rock is constructed on the Temple Mt. The History of the Temple:  The History of the Temple 1187 C. E. Crusaders take Jerusalem, rename the Dome of the Rock “Temple Domini” 1187 C. E. The city (and Temple) restored to Islam 1855 C.E. 1st acknowledged non-Muslim visitor allowed to enter the Temple Mount since 1187 1917 C. E. The Temple Mount opened to Europeans. Where was the first temple?:  Where was the first temple? “Jesus left the temple area and was going away, when his disciples approached him to point out the temple buildings. He said to them in reply, ‘You see all these things, do you not? Amen, I say to you, there will not be left here a stone upon another stone that will not be thrown down” (Matthew 24: 1-2, NAB). Just as Jesus predicted, the temple was completely destroyed on the 9th day of the month of Av in 70 C.E. Due to the total destruction of the site, as well as its modification during the Roman, Moslem and Crusader periods, there is much doubt today as to the location of the original and the second temples. The Temple Mount Today:  The Temple Mount Today The Temple Today: Aerial Photograph:  The Temple Today: Aerial Photograph Theory 1: The Traditional Site:  Theory 1: The Traditional Site The traditional site places the Temple exactly where the Dome of the Rock sits today. Theory 1: The Traditional Site:  Theory 1: The Traditional Site The Temple Mount sits in the middle of the city, and has experienced thousands of years of building, erosion, and changes to the landscape. Theory 1: The Traditional Site:  Theory 1: The Traditional Site Over the years, every group that has build on the Temple Mount has built on top of whatever religious structure was previously there. Theory 1: The Traditional Site:  Theory 1: The Traditional Site Furthermore, the walls of the temple line up with the walls and area that the temple should have mathematically covered. Theory 2: The Northern Conjecture:  Theory 2: The Northern Conjecture 330 ft north of the Dome of the Rock Theorized by Asher Kaufman Temple of Yahweh must be built in a certain location with certain dimensions or it will be merely a temple of man the building of the third temple will not effect the Dome of the Rock or the Mosque According to Ezekiel chapters 1, 2, and 40, the temple and inner court will be rebuilt with a pavement in the outer court area on the east and north The Dome of the Tablets:  The Dome of the Tablets Actually over the Dome of the Tablets The bedrock of Mt. Moriah outcrops within the dome of the rock, and part of this outcropping goes underneath and almost level to the paving stones for about 100 meters north which includes the Dome of the Tablets According to the Bible, the east-west centerline of the Temple must pass through the center of the Eastern Gate There is archaeological evidence as to where the Eastern Gate stood and the modern gate is built on top of it If built in the Revelations proportion in respect to the Eastern Gate, the temple should be to the north of the current Dome of the Rock Theory 3: The Southern Conjecture:  Theory 3: The Southern Conjecture In the last five years, a Tel Aviv architect named Tuvia Sagiv has researched and presented a new location of the original Temple Mount which is often referred to as the Southern Conjecture. Between the Dome of the Rock and the Al Aqsa mosque under an Islamic ablution fountain known as El Kas. The level of the bedrock of Mount Moriah outcrops within the Dome of the Rock and is just beneath the paving stones of the surrounding platform. However, to the south the bedrock drops steeply towards the City of David and the junction of Hinnom and Kidron Valleys. A few of Tuvia Sagiv’s considerations:  A few of Tuvia Sagiv’s considerations The Southern Conjecture: Topographic Map of Jerusalem (Contour interval 10 meters) Sagiv’s main points: Location of the Antonia Fortress Location of the Ancient North Moat The Hulda Gates The View from the North according to Josephus Flavius King Herod Aggripa’s view of the Temple from the west The Jerusalem water aqueduct from the Judean hills Thermal-infrared scanning:  Thermal-infrared scanning Subsurface anomalies revealed as a result of ground-penetrating radar. Variations suggest vaults, rabbinical arches, and other structures which one would expect below the Temple, but he found them to the south. Softer (lighter) regions result from heating and cooling processes. During the day, sunlight heating is consistent, but a night, the drop in temperature has left the softer ground with notably hotter regions, visibly darker on the thermal-infrared scans to the right. Due to the solid rock foundation under the presently accepted traditional location of the original Temple Mount, they are unable to further excavate. Regardless, Sagiv suggests that this southern location, with its inconsistencies below ground, is more likely accurate. Nighttime Thermal-Infrared Imagery of the Dome of the Rock Who “Owns” the Temple Mount?:  Who “Owns” the Temple Mount? Islamic Considerations Muslims claim that Jerusalem is the third holiest site in Islam Dome of the Rock now stands there Jerusalem is never specifically mentioned in the Koran Muslims pray facing Mecca with their backs to Jerusalem Jewish Considerations:  Jewish Considerations Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism Temple Mount was original site of the Temple of Solomon Explicitly mentioned in the Old Testament Jews pray facing Jerusalem Points of Contention:  Points of Contention Mohammed never mentions Jerusalem as a holy site Jews argue that Arafat claims the Temple Mount as holy for political reasons Arafat has claimed that there was no Jewish temple on the Temple mount Muslims now “own” the Temple Mount and Jews aren’t allowed to pray there Bombings of particular Jewish holy sites within Jerusalem are extremely common Holy space is extremely important in the politics of the Middle East and archaeological “fact” is part of the conflict Modern day implications:  Modern day implications What happens once the original Temple location is determined and everyone officially agrees? Many Jews hope for a new, third Temple so they may regain their timeless place of worship and restore millennia-old traditions. The ongoing questions remains: Is Jerusalem a Center of Peace or a Center of Conflict? Slide22:  http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blxtn_jerusalem-city07.htm http://witcombe.sbc.edu/sacredplaces/images/domeofrockext.jpg http://www.tparents.org/Library/Unification/Photos/Uph2003/HtoH-031222-Dome.jpg http://www.excel.net/~hoy/eastgate.html http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=42898 http://www.excel.net/~hoy/eastgate.html http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=42898

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