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The Sustainable Management of Wetlands

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Information about The Sustainable Management of Wetlands
Science-Technology

Published on June 12, 2009

Author: spapostolov

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide 1: The Sustainable Management of Wetlands: “Killing Two Birds with One Stone”The restoration and management of wetlands as a prospective toolfor the joint implementation of the provisions of the CBD and the WFD – a case study from Bulgaria Svetoslav P. Apostolov National Nature Protection Service Ministry of Environment and Water 22 Maria Luisa Blvd., room 115 1000 Sofia Bulgaria Slide 2: © Svetoslav P. Apostolov, 2005 All rights reserved. Reproduction is authorized under the Use Agreement terms and conditions. Implementing the Ecosystem Approach of the CBD – The opportunities provided by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union : Implementing the Ecosystem Approach of the CBD – The opportunities provided by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union Message: 1. We want to use a tool... 2. … that is designed for a certain job... 3. ... for another job. Why? : Why? Because this will allow us to “kill two birds with one stone”, i.e. allow for maximal results at minimal efforts or costs of action. Sounds tempting, doesn’t it? : Sounds tempting, doesn’t it? Buuuuut… There is one Condition: The tool must fit the detail we want to use it for ! Is that possible in our case? : Is that possible in our case? What is the Ecosystem Approach? : What is the Ecosystem Approach? The ecosystem approach is the tool to achieve the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity. BUT… What are these goals? What are the Goals of the CBD? : What are the Goals of the CBD? The three main goals of the CBD are the: conservation of biological diversity; sustainable use of its components; fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. (legal tool to achieve the objectives set in Chapter 15 of Agenda 21, which calls for “[u]rgent and decisive action … to conserve and maintain genes, species and ecosystems, with a view to the sustainable management and use of biological resources as a capital asset with great potential for yielding sustainable benefits”). Hence, the Ecosystem Approach is: : Hence, the Ecosystem Approach is: a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Can we use the Ecosystem Approach to achieve the goals of theWater Framework Directive? : Can we use the Ecosystem Approach to achieve the goals of theWater Framework Directive? Again - what are these goals? What is the goal of theWater Framework Directive? : What is the goal of theWater Framework Directive? To ensure sufficient water of good quality for Europe: Common principles are needed in order to coordinate Member States' efforts to improve the protection of Community waters in terms of quantity and quality, to promote sustainable water use, to contribute to the control of transboundary water problems, to protect aquatic ecosystems, and terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands directly depending on them, and to safeguard and develop the potential uses of Community waters. (legal tool to achieve the objectives set in Chapter 18 of Agenda 21, which calls for “holistic management of freshwater as a finite and vulnerable resource”). How is this objective to be achieved? : How is this objective to be achieved? Through management of the water resource at the river basin level. That is…GREAT! : That is…GREAT! Since the Ecosystem Approach includes the management of the water resource, apparently we can apply it in order to achieve the goal of the WFD. However... : However... ... water is not only a resource and a key to sustainable development, it is also essential for life! Which means that... : Which means that... … sustainable water management is not possible without the protection and sustainable use of ecosystems. Slide 16: And since the Ecosystem Approach also integrates the management of land and living organisms, it may prove a feasible tool to reach the goal of the WFD, protecting the naturally functioning ecosystems of the river basin! In the context of the WFD, we may call the Ecosystem Approach “Integrated River Basin Management”: Integrated river basin management involves taking account of the interdependence of natural and human factors within a catchment. Decisions on what to do in one part of a catchment are informed by knowledge of the consequences for the rest of the system. What have we got so far? : What have we got so far? We proved that it can be feasible to use a single tool (the Ecosystem Approach) to reach the objectives of two nature protection legal acts, thus saving ourselves some money and, most important, efforts by avoiding duplicating work. Generally, quite good! But why stop here? : But why stop here? Having proven that one single tool can serve to reach the objectives of the CBD and of the WFD by integrating these, now we should ask ourselves the question “Can we make it even easier for us? Can we find one single ecosystem, the management of which will yield in optimal results for both the biological diversity and the water resource management?” And the answer is… YES! : And the answer is… YES! Now it is generally accepted that it is possible to achieve optimal result by managing only one ecosystem type – the wetland ecosystem type. Wetland functions and services : Wetland functions and services A wetland performs numerous natural services from which man can also benefit, and at the same time wetlands is the source of many natural products: 1) Biodiversity protection, 2) Water storage, 3) Groundwater replenishment, 4) Sediment retention, 5) Retention of nutrients and other substances, 6) Storehouses (sinks) of carbon. Wetlands - a keystone inIntegrated River Basin Management : Wetlands - a keystone inIntegrated River Basin Management provide habitat to a great number of globally endangered plant and animal species, extremely important to protecting water quality and quantity, can provide livelihood to the local (and in some cases – even to the national) economy through sustainable management and use of the natural resources off the ecosystem. Slide 22: The problem: Wetlands loss resulting from past unsustainable management practices. The solution: Change of practices and restoration of wetlands. Wetlands status in Bulgaria : Wetlands status in Bulgaria Past policy wetland destruction - 200000 ha of natural wetlands at the turn of the 20th century; nowadays 11000 ha or only 0,1% of the country’s territory, many are influenced by human activity. Current policy wetland protection. Slide 24: mere protection of wetlands is inefficient to restore the past biodiversity of the degraded habitats; restoration of wetlands to the optimal status is needed. Slide 25: decrease water pollution; possible source of revenue for local communities living in the poorer regions of Bulgaria. Wetlands Restoration and Pollution Reduction Project : Wetlands Restoration and Pollution Reduction Project Restoration of 2 former wetlands along the Danube River – the Kalimok and Brushlen marshes (1050 ha) and some of the marshes on the Belene Island (1290 ha). Global outcomes: endangered species habitat restoration. pollution reduction. FOR MORE DETAILS: Mrs. Marietta Stoimenova - Project Manager Project Co-ordination Unit 22 Maria Luisa Blvd., room 408 1000 Sofia BULGARIA Web site: http://82.147.142.34/wetlands/ Project Development Objective : Project Development Objective Local communities and local authorities in the Persina Nature Park and the Kalimok–Brushlen Protected Site areas adopt sustainable natural resources management practices: the management model of the Kalimok–Brushlen Protected Site - a pilot management model; the future of the protected areas’ management in Bulgaria. Project components I : Project components I Component 1 - Wetlands Restoration: Restore critical priority wetlands in the Danube River basin in order to demonstrate the use of the wetlands in riparian zones as nutrient sinks. Expected reduction of nutrients (estimation): Site Nitrogen [kg/y] Phosphorus [kg/y] Belene Island marshes 74 000 – 310 000 7 800 – 12 000 Kalimok–Brushlen marshes 144 000 – 503 000 15 600 – 25 400 Total 218 000 – 813 000 23 400 – 37 400 (approximately 5% of Bulgaria’s total nutrient contribution to the Danube River). Project components II : Project components II Component 2 - Protected Areas Management: Sustainable resource management and protection within the two protected sites, Persina Nature Park (ca. 22000 ha) and Kalimok–Brushlen Protected Site (ca. 6000 ha): management plans for the two protected areas; monitoring of water quality and ecosystem health; public awareness/ participation and environmental education programmes. Slide 30: Both the wetlands restoration design and protected areas management regimes will integrate needs of the local communities with the biodiversity objectives of the two protected areas. Although the Project only directly addresses the restoration of selected priority wetlands in Bulgaria, these activities will play a critical demonstration role within the region, promoting nutrient reduction investments in other parts of Bulgaria and neighbouring countries. The Project helps meet the following objectives : The Project helps meet the following objectives Sustainable natural resources management. Strengthen implementation and compliance with EU environmental directives. Promote alternative livelihood. Incentive measures : Incentive measures To encourage the conservation and sustainable use of the natural resources, the following incentive measures are provided within the frames of the Project: Farmer Transition Support Fund (GEF); Biodiversity Small Grants Scheme (GEF); Fund to support local entrepreneurs (Austrian Government). “Green business” promoted by the Project : “Green business” promoted by the Project Some of the alternative incomes generating activities planned for the two protected areas are: Eco-tourism development; Development of ecologically friendly agriculture and livestock breeding, eco-labelled products; Development of the home and international markets for the ecologically clean products; Fish farming in small dams; Non-timber forest resources gathering – herbs, mushrooms, forest fruits, snails, others; Herbs and spices cultivating; Bee keeping; Silkworm breeding; Handicrafts development. Slide 34: All these programmes are intended to provide benefits to the present generation while at the same time maintaining the values and ecological processes for the future generations. Slide 35: USE AGREEMENT FOR THE PRESENTATION The Sustainable Management of Wetlands: “Killing Two Birds with One Stone” AGREEMENT REQUIRED TO USE THE PRESENTATION Thank you for your interest in the Sustainable Management of Wetlands: “Killing Two Birds with One Stone” presentation. The presentation is subject to a disclaimer and a copyright. By continuing working with the presentation, you agree to accept and abide by the terms and conditions specified hereunder. Age and responsibility for Agreement You represent that you are of sufficient legal age to contract or create a binding legal obligation.   Assignment You may not assign, convey, subcontract, give or donate, or delegate your rights, duties or obligations under this Use Agreement. Slide 36: USE AGREEMENT (continued) Disclaimer § 1. General The Sustainable Management of Wetlands: “Killing Two Birds with One Stone” presentation (hereafter: the presentation) is published by Svetoslav P. Apostolov (hereunder: the Author) with the aim of enhancing public access to information on the potential that management of wetland ecosystems has to provide for the successful implementation of the major objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Water Framework Directive. The use of the presentation takes place on the basis of these terms and conditions of use. The user accepts these as soon as he/she has been informed of them, has had a reasonable opportunity to read them and continues to use the presentation. This disclaimer is not intended to limit the liability of the Author in contravention of any requirements laid down in applicable national law nor to exclude his liability for matters which may not be excluded under that law. Slide 37: USE AGREEMENT (continued) (4) The Author reserves the right to modify and/or change this Use Agreement at any time without notice. It is the sole responsibility of the user to review this page regularly in order to ensure he/she is familiar with the most up-to-date Use Agreement. The user understands and agrees that if he/she uses the presentation after the date on which the Use Agreement has been updated, his/her use will be treated as acceptance of the updated Use Agreement. (5) The Author reserves the right to suspend or discontinue providing access to the presentation (or any part thereof) at any time without notice. § 2. Responsibility for contents For his own content, which the Author has ready for use, the Author is responsible only in accordance with the general law. (2) The information contained in the presentation is: of a general nature only and is not intended to address the specific circumstances of any particular individual or entity; Slide 38: USE AGREEMENT (continued) not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date; not professional or legal advice (if you need specific advice, you should always consult a suitably qualified professional). (3) The Author shall in no event be held responsible for errors, injuries, damages or losses of any kind (including but not limited to actual losses or lost profits, or missed opportunities) incurred by or in any way connected to the use of the information contained in the presentation. Otherwise the responsibility will be in accordance with the general law. § 3. Technical availability For technical reasons the system providing access to the presentation can from time to time be used only temporarily and/or for only part of the contents. 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