The Subjunctive

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Information about The Subjunctive

Published on February 12, 2009

Author: davidsoj

Source: slideshare.net

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PowerPoint on the Subjunctive

The Subjunctive

A mood The subjunctive mood is used frequently in Spanish to express an action that is desired or hoped for but that is not necessarily real. The indicative mood is used to indicate or express actions that definitely are taking place, did take place or will take place. The indicative is what we have been using up until this point.

The subjunctive mood is used frequently in Spanish to express an action that is desired or hoped for but that is not necessarily real.

The indicative mood is used to indicate or express actions that definitely are taking place, did take place or will take place.

The indicative is what we have been using up until this point.

Examples p. 94 Cristina trabaja mucho y paga sus gastos personales. This first sentence is an independent statement of fact – Christina works a lot and pays her personal expenses. Therefore, the verbs are in the indicative.

Cristina trabaja mucho y paga sus gastos personales.

This first sentence is an independent statement of fact – Christina works a lot and pays her personal expenses. Therefore, the verbs are in the indicative.

Examples p. 94 (cont.) Abuelita quiere que su nieta Cristina trabaje mucho y que pague sus gastos personales. The second sentence contains a dependent clause – that Christina work a lot and pay her personal expenses. The actions expressed in this dependent clause are desired but not necessarily real. They are dependent upon, and subordinate to, the verb in the main clause “want.” What Christina’s grandmother wants may or may not occur. Since it may or may not occur, the verbs in the dependent clause must be in the subjunctive mood.

Abuelita quiere que su nieta Cristina trabaje mucho y que pague sus gastos personales.

The second sentence contains a dependent clause – that Christina work a lot and pay her personal expenses. The actions expressed in this dependent clause are desired but not necessarily real. They are dependent upon, and subordinate to, the verb in the main clause “want.” What Christina’s grandmother wants may or may not occur. Since it may or may not occur, the verbs in the dependent clause must be in the subjunctive mood.

How to form the subjunctive To form the present subjunctive, drop the –o ending from the first person singular of the present indicative (present tense). Hablar-hablo- habl Comer- como- com Poner- pongo-pong Conocer- conozco- conozc

To form the present subjunctive, drop the –o ending from the first person singular of the present indicative (present tense).

Hablar-hablo- habl

Comer- como- com

Poner- pongo-pong

Conocer- conozco- conozc

How to form the subjunctive (cont.) Then add to the root the endings for the present subjunctive they are as follows AR ER,IR e a es as e a emos amos éis áis en an The vowel of the subjunctive endings is the opposite of the vowel used for the present indicative. Verbs ending in –ar take the vowel –e and verbs ending en –er and –ir take the vowel –a.

Then add to the root the endings for the present subjunctive they are as follows

AR ER,IR

e a

es as

e a

emos amos

éis áis

en an

The vowel of the subjunctive endings is the opposite of the vowel used for the present indicative. Verbs ending in –ar take the vowel –e and verbs ending en –er and –ir take the vowel –a.

How to form the subjunctive (cont.) Hablar-hablo- habl- hable Comer- como- com- coma Poner- pongo-pong- ponga Conocer- conozco- conozc- conozca

Hablar-hablo- habl- hable

Comer- como- com- coma

Poner- pongo-pong- ponga

Conocer- conozco- conozc- conozca

A few irregulars Dar - dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den Estar - esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén Ser - sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean Ir - vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan Saber - sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan The subjunctive of the verb hay (there is, there are) is haya.

Dar - dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den

Estar - esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén

Ser - sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean

Ir - vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan

Saber - sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan

The subjunctive of the verb hay (there is, there are) is haya.

Act. 1 page 96 Cecilia’s grandmother wants her to do many things. It is possible that she will do them, but it is also possible that she will not do them. We don’t know. Therefore, it is necessary to use the subjuntive. Follow the model. Estudiar--- La abuela de Cecilia quiere que ella estudie. Estudiar mucho--- quiere que estudie mucho. Tomar cinco cursos--- quiere que tome cinco cursos. Continue on with numbers 3-16. Make sure to underline the subjunctive.

Cecilia’s grandmother wants her to do many things. It is possible that she will do them, but it is also possible that she will not do them. We don’t know. Therefore, it is necessary to use the subjuntive. Follow the model.

Estudiar--- La abuela de Cecilia quiere que ella estudie.

Estudiar mucho--- quiere que estudie mucho.

Tomar cinco cursos--- quiere que tome cinco cursos.

Continue on with numbers 3-16. Make sure to underline the subjunctive.

Answers… 3. quiere que trabaje mucho. 4. quiere que aprenda mucho. 5. quiere que lea mucho. 6. quiere que coma bien. 7. quiere que viva con sus padres. 8. quiere que reciba buenas notas. 9. quiere que asista la universidad. 10. quiere que tenga éxito. 11. quiere que salga bien en los exámenes. 12. quiere que diga siempre la verdad. 13. quiere que tenga buenos modales. 14. quiere que sea cortés. 15. quiere que conduzca el coche con cuidado. 16. quiere que se haga rica.

3. quiere que trabaje mucho.

4. quiere que aprenda mucho.

5. quiere que lea mucho.

6. quiere que coma bien.

7. quiere que viva con sus padres.

8. quiere que reciba buenas notas.

9. quiere que asista la universidad.

10. quiere que tenga éxito.

11. quiere que salga bien en los exámenes.

12. quiere que diga siempre la verdad.

13. quiere que tenga buenos modales.

14. quiere que sea cortés.

15. quiere que conduzca el coche con cuidado.

16. quiere que se haga rica.

Try Again Now do the same things but use Mis amigos quieren que nosotros… Estudiar mucho--- quieren que estudiemos mucho. Tomar cinco cursos--- quieren que tomemos cinco cursos. Continue on with numbers 3-16. Make sure to underline the subjunctive.

Now do the same things but use Mis amigos quieren que nosotros…

Estudiar mucho--- quieren que estudiemos mucho.

Tomar cinco cursos--- quieren que tomemos cinco cursos.

Continue on with numbers 3-16. Make sure to underline the subjunctive.

Answers… 3. quieren que trabajemos mucho. 4. quieren que aprendamos mucho. 5. quieren que leamos mucho. 6. quieren que comamos bien. 7. quieren que vivamos con sus padres. 8. quieren que recibamos buenas notas. 9. quieren que asistamos la universidad. 10. quieren que tengamos éxito. 11. quieren que salgamos bien en los exámenes. 12. quieren que digamos siempre la verdad. 13. quieren que tengamos buenos modales. 14. quieren que seamos cortés. 15. quieren que conduzcamos el coche con cuidado. 16. quieren que se hagamos ricas.

3. quieren que trabajemos mucho.

4. quieren que aprendamos mucho.

5. quieren que leamos mucho.

6. quieren que comamos bien.

7. quieren que vivamos con sus padres.

8. quieren que recibamos buenas notas.

9. quieren que asistamos la universidad.

10. quieren que tengamos éxito.

11. quieren que salgamos bien en los exámenes.

12. quieren que digamos siempre la verdad.

13. quieren que tengamos buenos modales.

14. quieren que seamos cortés.

15. quieren que conduzcamos el coche con cuidado.

16. quieren que se hagamos ricas.

Stem-Changing in the Subjunctive Note the following verbs have the same stem-change in the subjunctive as they do in the present indicative. Pensar (e:ie) Pedir (e:i) Contar (o:ue) Servir (e:i) Perder (e:ie) Preferir (e:ie) Volver (o:ue) Dormir (o:ue) * If you follow the rule (present indicative yo form then drop the “o”, you will get this.*

Note the following verbs have the same stem-change in the subjunctive as they do in the present indicative.

Pensar (e:ie) Pedir (e:i)

Contar (o:ue) Servir (e:i)

Perder (e:ie) Preferir (e:ie)

Volver (o:ue) Dormir (o:ue)

* If you follow the rule (present indicative yo form then drop the “o”, you will get this.*

Expressing Necessity and Possibility p. 97 The following expressions are followed by the subjunctive since it is not definite that the action in the dependent clause that follows each expression will be a reality. It may or may not take place. Es posible Es bueno Es imposible Es mejor Es probable Es fácil Es improbable Es dif í cil Es importante Es necesario

The following expressions are followed by the subjunctive since it is not definite that the action in the dependent clause that follows each expression will be a reality. It may or may not take place.

Es posible Es bueno

Es imposible Es mejor

Es probable Es fácil

Es improbable Es dif í cil

Es importante Es necesario

Expressing Necessity and Possibility p. 97 (cont.) Examples: Es posible que ellos vayan a Miraflores. Es imposible que lleguen a tiempo. Es probable que haya mucho tráfico porque hay un desv í o en la carretera. A causa del desv í o, es fácil que se pierdan.

Examples:

Es posible que ellos vayan a Miraflores.

Es imposible que lleguen a tiempo.

Es probable que haya mucho tráfico porque hay un desv í o en la carretera.

A causa del desv í o, es fácil que se pierdan.

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