The structure of scientific revolutions (anuj)

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Information about The structure of scientific revolutions (anuj)

Published on December 12, 2016

Author: anujbhatia09


1. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions -Thomas S. Kuhn (Ch. V to IX) Anuj Vijay Bhatia FPRM 14 Institute of Rural Management Anand

2.  A Role of History  The Route to Normal Science  The Nature of Normal Science  Normal Science as Puzzle Solving Till now we have seen..

3.  Easy to determine Paradigms of a mature science  Shared paradigms does not imply shared rules.  Historians must compare paradigms  Identify isolable elements  Identify accepted rules and principles The Priority of Paradigms

4.  Search for rules : A source of deep frustration.  What abstract characteristics make solutions to problem permanent?  Scientists disagree to the interpretations of paradigm  Existence of paradigm isn't existence of rules  Scientist must know certain rules  No set of characteristics is applicable to all

5. “Paradigms may be prior to, more binding, and more complete than any set of rules for research that could be unequivocally abstracted from them” -Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

6.  Paradigms can determine normal science without intervention of discoverable rules.  Reasons: 1. Difficulty of Discovering Rules 2. The nature of Scientific Education 3. Normal Science can proceed without rules 4. Shared Paradigm not same for all

7.  Paradigm change is brought by anomaly  Normal Science doesn’t aim at novelties  New and unsuspected phenomenon uncovered  Fundamental novelties bring paradigm change. Anomaly and the Emergence of Scientific Discoveries

8.  How changes in paradigm shift came about? 1. Awareness of anomalies. 2. Observational and conceptual recognition 3. The consequent change of paradigm and Resistance

9.  Scientist see nature in different way  New facts/anomalies does not always lead to paradigm change  Not all theories are paradigm theories  Novelty emerges only with difficulty  Novelties are manifested by resistance

10.  Constructive and Destructive Changes  Awareness of anomaly  Professional Insecurity  Failure of Rules  Discrepancy between theory and fact  Changes in social/cultural climates  Science is often “ridden by dogma” Crisis and the Emergence of Scientific Theories

11.  New theory after failure  Novel theory is direct response to crisis  Crisis is often surprising  Multiple theoretical construction from same data  Not difficult to invent alternatives  Resistance to alternatives if tools are useful  Retooling is an extravagance  Crisis provides opportunity to retool

12.  Anomalies must result in crisis  Pre-condition for paradigm change  Crisis is “essential tension”  No research without counterinstances  Counterinstances creates tension and crisis  Crisis is implicit in research The Response to Crisis

13. Responses to Crisis 1. Consider Alternatives 2. Don’t treat anomalies as counterinstances 3. Ad hoc modifications 4. Leave the profession

14.  Persistent and recognized anomaly does not induce crisis  Failure discredits scientists and not theory  Carpenter blaming his tools  Science Education: Confirmation theory

15.  An anomaly should be more than just an anomaly  Anomalies are always there  Cannot examine every anomaly  It can question fundamental generalization of paradigms  It has practical implications  More than just another puzzle  Resistance

16.  Crisis begins with blurring of paradigm  Loosens rules for normal research  Anomaly gets recognition  It gets attention too  Scientist express discontent  Competing articulations proliferate  Try to resolve  Often leads to new discoveries

17.  Crisis closes in following ways: 1. Normal Science solves the anomaly 2. Anomaly is set aside again 3. A new paradigm solves the anomaly: Paradigm wars  Invalid paradigm: Only if alternate candidate is available  Reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals  Emergence of new paradigms

18.  Transition from former to alternate paradigm  Changed view of the field, methods and goals  Reorientation: Same data in different framework  New Paradigms with different universe of discourse  Transition to new paradigm : Scientific Revolution  From normal to extraordinary research

19. “….scientific revolutions are taken to be those non- cumulative developmental episodes in which an older paradigm is replaced in whole or part by incompatible new one.” -Kuhn, T. (1979). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. (Second ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. The Nature and Necessity of Scientific Revolutions

20. Scientific Revolution is Similar to Political Revolution  Anomaly and Crisis  Dissatisfaction with existing institutions  Change in institutions  Members become estranged and act eccentrically  Reconstruction on new institutional framework  Competing camps and parties  Political recourse fails due to polarization  Parties resort to mass persuasion

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