Published on March 5, 2014
8.2 Structure of DNA KEY CONCEPT DNA structure is the same in all organisms.
8.2 Structure of DNA DNA is composed of four types of nucleotides. • DNA is made up of a long chain of nucleotides. • Each nucleotide has three parts. – a phosphate group – a deoxyribose sugar – a nitrogen-containing base phosphate group deoxyribose (sugar) nitrogen-containing base
8.2 Structure of DNA • The nitrogen containing bases are the only difference in the four nucleotides.
8.2 Structure of DNA Watson and Crick determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA by building models. • They realized that DNA is a double helix that is made up of a sugarphosphate backbone on the outside with bases on the inside.
8.2 Structure of DNA • Watson and Crick’s discovery built on the work of Rosalind Franklin and Erwin Chargaff. – Franklin’s x-ray images suggested that DNA was a double helix of even width. – Chargaff’s rules stated that A=T and C=G.
8.2 Structure of DNA Nucleotides always pair in the same way. • The base-pairing rules show how nucleotides always pair up in DNA. – A pairs with T – C pairs with G • Because a pyrimidine (single ring) pairs with a purine (double ring), the helix has a uniform width. G C A T
8.2 Structure of DNA • The backbone is connected by covalent bonds. • The bases are connected by hydrogen bonds. hydrogen bond covalent bond
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