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the sounds of language

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Published on March 15, 2014

Author: Aseelkazum

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phonetics and phonology
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University Of Baghdad College Of Arts English Department The Sounds of Language By: Aseel Kazum Mahmood 5th.Nov.2013

Introduction: The two terms ‘language’ and ‘sound’ are so common in introductory textbooks about language and linguistics and wherever there is a need to talk about communication. Sounds are essential to speech. We use speech for communication and sounds of speech are the fundamental elements of such a communication system. We consider sounds to be the basic components of speech, The ability to produce sounds is not sufficient for communication. We need a vehicle of transmitting these sounds to the ears of the hearers and that is where the study of the sounds waves comes into play. It is called acoustic phonetics. We have seen that the mere phonetic framework of speech does not constitute the inner fact of language and that the single sound of articulated speech is not, as such, a linguistic element at all. For all that, speech is so inevitably bound up with sounds and their articulation that we can hardly avoid giving the subject of phonetics some general consideration. Production of sound: We will begin by describing how speech sounds are made. Generally speech is the result of a highly complicated series of events, the communication in sound of such a simple concept as; “it’s raining” involves a number of activities on the part of the speaker. We can define the formulation of speech sound in terms of three stages:  The first place, the formulation of the concept will take place at the linguistic level, i.e. the brain; the first stage may be said to be psychological. The nervous system transmit this message to the so called organs of the speech and these in turn behave in conventional way, which, as we have learned by experience, will have the effect of producing a particular pattern of sound.  The second important stage for our purpose may thus be said to be articulatory or physiological. The movement of the organs of speech will create disturbance in the air, or whatever the medium.  The third stage in our chain, the physical or acoustic. Since communication generally requires a listener as well as a speaker, these stages will be reversed at the listening end: the reception of the sound waves by the hearing apparatus (physiological) and the transmission of the information along the

nervous system to the brain, where the linguistic interpretation of the message takes place (psychological). Accent and sound: The main point of language is to convey information and nowadays a language can take various forms. It can be:  Spoken.  written  As a sign for those who cannot hear. However speech is the most common way of using language, still there are a number of nonlinguistic notions conveyed by speech.it only take one few seconds to know something about a person talking to you, without considering the words they use or their meaning but mainly because of the way they say it this feature is best characterized as accent. (Roch.2009) defines an accent as ‘’the different pronunciation of the same language by people from different geographical places, social classes, ages or educational background…etc. Q. how this definition relates to language and sound in far than the different pronunciation of the same language itself, more likely, of that of speakers of other languages? A. Normally the speaker feels that his language is built up, acoustically speaking, of a comparatively small number of distinct sounds, each of these sounds is accurately provided for in the current alphabet by one letter or, in a few cases, by two or more alternative letters. As for the languages of foreigners, a certain unanalyzed phonetic character, apart from the sounds as such, that gives foreign speakers their air of strangeness which makes the speaker feels that the sounds they use are the same as those he is familiar with but that there is a mysterious “accent” to these foreign languages. The thing that makes the speaker sense the strangeness in his speech is accent, “accent” the way Sapir describes it is ‘’as the total acoustic effect produced by a series of slight but specific phonetic errors for the very good reason that we have never made clear to ourselves our own phonetic stock in trade.’’

Q. What makes the speaker sense a mysterious accent in the way foreign speakers produce their native language? A. The reason to sense this mysterious accent is due to the Phonetic analysis which convinces one that the number of clearly distinguishable sounds and nuances of sounds that are habitually employed by the speakers of a language is far greater than they themselves recognize. This is all due to the frequent failure of foreigners, who have acquired a practical mastery of English and who have eliminated all the cruder phonetic shortcomings of their less careful brethren, and by neglecting that they neglected the minor distinctions that helps to give their English pronunciation the curiously elusive “accent” that we all vaguely feel. E.g: English speaker sometimes overlook the pronunciation of certain words like that the t of a word like sting is not at all the same sound as the t of teem. The latter t having a fullness of “breath release” that is inhibited in the former case by the preceding s.

Variability of speech sounds The main goal of the phonological research community is to understand the variation in the sound structure of language. A focus of this feature that sets it apart from other variation is the emphasis on understanding how knowledge of variation might be presented cognitively, a growing consensus among researchers is that at least some aspects of acoustic and articulatory variations are represented cognitively, rather than being derived by universal principles (munson2009). And still despite the peculiarity made between the two languages previously were performed merely to clear the view of the tremendous variability of speech sounds. Yet a complete inventory of the acoustic resources of all the European languages, the languages nearer home, while unexpectedly large, would still fall far short of conveying a just idea of the true range of human articulation. In many of the languages of Asia, Africa, and aboriginal America there are whole classes of sounds that most of us have no knowledge of. They are not necessarily more difficult of enunciation than sounds more familiar to our ears; they merely involve such muscular adjustments of the organs of speech as we have never habituated ourselves to. It may be safely said that the total number of possible sounds is greatly in excess of those actually in use. Q. Why we find it difficult to believe that the range of possible speech sounds is indefinitely large? A. That is due to two reasons, firstly; our habit of conceiving the sound as a simple, unanalyzable impression instead of as the resultant of a number of distinct muscular adjustments that take place simultaneously. A slight change in any one of these adjustments gives us a new sound which is akin to the old one, because of the continuance of the other adjustments, but which is acoustically distinct from it, so sensitive has the human ear become to the nuanced play of the vocal mechanism. Secondly; while our ear is delicately responsive to the sounds of speech, the muscles of our speech organs have early in life become exclusively accustomed to the particular adjustments and systems of adjustment that are required to produce the traditional sounds of the language. All or nearly all other adjustments have become permanently inhibited, whether through inexperience or through gradual elimination.

Human ability to produce new sounds: Mostly all our speech organs have become adjusted and thus permanently inhibited to making the sounds of our language whether through inexperience or through gradual elimination in addition to that the adaptation of human ear to hearing those familiar sounds, but that does not mean losing our ability to produce new sounds, the power to produce these inhibited adjustments is not entirely lost, but the extreme difficulty we experience in learning the new sounds of foreign languages is sufficient evidence of the strange rigidity that has set in for most people in the voluntary control of the speech organs. We can compare the lack of freedom of voluntary speech movements with the all but perfect freedom of voluntary gesture and according to Fernandez& Eva (2011) phonological development statement that From birth to one year, comprehension (the language we understand) develops before production (the language we use). And that the person until the age of ten have mostly developed a somewhat fixed phonological system of articulated muscular adjustment during which he has good command of language. By that we think of our rigidity in articulation is the price we have had to pay for easy mastery of a highly necessary symbolism. One cannot be both splendidly free in the random choice of movements and selective with deadly certainty.

Organs of speech: A full account of the activity of each of the organs of speech— in so far as its activity has a bearing on language— is not impossible here, nor can we concern ourselves in a systematic way with the classification of sounds on the basis of their mechanics. a few bolded outline is all we can attempt and in the words of gibson ‘’the first stage may therefore be said to be psychological.as the nerve system transmit this message of producing sound to the ‘’organs of speech’ ’and these in turn behave in a conventional manner . it is the movement of the organs of speech that creates disturbance in the air or whatever the medium may be through we are talking ; the varying of air pressure may be investigated and continued into the third stage which is the physical or acoustic ‘’.(gimson1989) The man map of the organs of speech is around the following areas; the lungs and bronchial tubes; the throat, particularly that part of it which is known as the larynx or, in popular parlance, the “Adam’s apple”; the nose; the uvula, uvula, which is the soft, pointed, and easily movable organ that depends from the rear of the palate; the palate, which is divided into a posterior, movable “soft palate” or velum and a “hard palate”; the tongue; the teeth; and the lips. The palate, lower palate, tongue, teeth, and lips may be looked upon as a combined resonance chamber, whose constantly varying shape, chiefly due to the extreme mobility of the tongue, is the main factor in giving the outgoing breath its precise quality of sound. The lungs & bronchial tubes: The lungs and bronchial tubes are organs of speech only in so far as they supply and conduct the current of outgoing air without which audible articulation is impossible. They are not responsible for any specific sound or acoustic feature of sounds except, possibly, accent or stress. It may be that differences of stress are due to slight differences in the contracting force of the lung muscles, but even this influence of the lungs is denied by some students, who explain the fluctuations of stress that do so much to color speech by reference to the more delicate activity of the glottal cords.

The glottal cords and the larynx: These glottal cords are two small, nearly horizontal, and highly sensitive membranes within the larynx, which consists, for the most part, of two large and several smaller cartilages and of a number of small muscles that control the action of the cords. The cords, which are attached to the cartilages, are to the human speech organs what the two vibrating reeds are to a clarinet or the strings to a violin. They are capable of at least three distinct types of movement, each of which is of the greatest importance for speech: -They may be drawn towards or away from each other, they may vibrate like reeds or strings. -They may become lax or tense in the direction of their length. -The last class of these movements allows the cords to vibrate at different “lengths” or degrees of tenseness and is responsible for the variations in pitch which are present not only in song but in the more elusive modulations of ordinary speech. The role of glottal stops in determining voicing:  The two other types of glottal action determine the nature of the voice, “voice” being a convenient term for breath as utilized in speech. If the cords are well apart, allowing the breath to escape in unmodified form, we have the condition technically known as “voicelessness.” All sounds produced under these circumstances are “voiceless” sounds. Such are the simple, unmodified breath as it passes into the mouth, which is, at least approximately, the same as the sound that we write h, also a large number of special articulations in the mouth chamber, like p and s.  On the other hand, the glottal cords may be brought tight together, without vibrating. When this happens, the current of breath is checked for the time being. The slight choke or “arrested cough” that is thus made audible is not recognized in English as a definite sound but occurs nevertheless not infrequently. This momentary check, technically known as a “glottal stop,” is an integral element of speech in many languages, as Danish, Lettish, certain Chinese dialects, and nearly all American Indian languages.  Between the two extremes of voicelessness, that of completely open breath and that of checked breath lies the position of true voice. In this position the

cords are close together, but not so tightly as to prevent the air from streaming through; the cords are set vibrating and a musical tone of varying pitch results. A tone so produced is known as a “voiced sound.” It may have an indefinite number of qualities according to the precise position of the upper organs of speech. Our vowels, nasals (such as m and n), and such sounds as b, z, and l are all voiced sounds. The most convenient test of a voiced sound is the possibility of pronouncing it on any given pitch, in other words, of singing on it.The voiced sounds are the most clearly audible elements of speech. As such they are the carriers of practically all significant differences in stress, pitch, and syllabification. The voiceless sounds are articulated noises that break up the stream of voice with fleeting moments of silence. Acoustically intermediate between the freely unvoiced and the voiced sounds are a number of other characteristic types of voicing, such as murmuring and whisper. These and still other types of voice are relatively unimportant in English and most other European languages, but there are languages in which they rise to some prominence in the normal flow of speech. The nose The nose is not an active organ of speech, but it is highly important as a resonance chamber. It may be disconnected from the mouth, which is the other great resonance chamber, by the lifting of the movable part of the soft palate so as to shut off the passage of the breath into the nasal cavity; or, if the soft palate is allowed to hang down freely and un obstructively, so that the breath passes into both the nose and the mouth, these make a combined resonance chamber. Such sounds as b and a (as in father) are voiced “oral” sounds,. As soon as the soft palate is lowered, however, and the nose added as a participating resonance chamber, the sounds b and a take on a peculiar “nasal” quality and become, respectively, m and the nasalized vowel written an in French (e.g., sang, tant). Consonants (manner and place) The remaining oral sounds are generally grouped together as “consonants.” ’’In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with

the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose (nasals). Contrasting with consonants are vowels.’’ Ladefoged & Maddieson(1996). In them the stream of breath is interfered with in some way, so that a lesser resonance results, and a sharper, more incisive quality of tone. There are four main types of articulation generally recognized within the consonantal group of sounds.  The “stops” or “explosives The breath may be completely stopped for a moment at some definite point in the oral cavity. Sounds so produced, like t or d or p.  The “spirants” or “fricatives,”.” where the breath may be continuously obstructed through a narrow passage, not entirely checked. Examples of such as they are called are s and z and y.  The “laterals,” are semi-stopped. There is a true stoppage at the central point of articulation, but the breath is allowed to escape through the two side passages or through one of them. Our English d, for instance. Laterals are possible in many distinct positions. They may be unvoiced (the Welsh ll is an example) as well as voiced.  These sounds are the “trills” or “rolled consonants,” in which the stoppage of the breath may be rapidly intermittent; in other words, the active organ of contact—generally the point of the tongue, less often the uvula—may be made to vibrate against or near the point of contact of which the normal English r is a none too typical example. They may be voiced or unvoiced.(Roca and Johnson 2000) The oral manner of articulation is naturally not sufficient to define a consonant. The place of articulation must also be considered. Contacts may be formed at a large number of points as below: - from the root of the tongue to the lips. It is not necessary here to go at length into this somewhat complicated matter. -The contact is either between the root of the tongue and the throat, -some part of the tongue and a point on the palate (as in k or ch or l), -some part of the tongue and the teeth (as in the English th of thick and then),

- the teeth and one of the lips (practically always the upper teeth and lower lip, as in f), -or the two lips (as in p or English w).(Roca and Johnson 2000) The tongue articulations are the most complicated of all, as the mobility of the tongue allows various points on its surface, say the tip, to articulate against a number of opposed points of contact. It is evident that all the articulations that involve the tongue form a continuous organic (and acoustic) series. The positions grade into each other, but each language selects a limited number of clearly defined positions as characteristic of its consonantal system, ignoring transitional or extreme positions. Hence arise many positions of articulation that we are not familiar with also as listed below: -The typical “dental” position of Russian or Italian t and d; -The “cerebral” position of Sanskrit and other languages of India, in which the tip of the tongue articulates against the hard palate. As there is no break at any point between the rims of the teeth back to the uvula nor from the tip of the tongue back to its root, Frequently a language allows a certain latitude in the fixing of the required position. This is true, for instance, of the English k sound, which is articulated much further to the front in a word like kin than in cool. We ignore this difference, psychologically, as a non-essential, mechanical one. Another language might well recognize the difference, or only a slightly greater one, as significant, as paralleling the distinction in position between the k of kin and the t of tin. Vowels: Vowel: Is a speech sound produced with the air going out freely, without any obstruction in the vocal tract .There are three kinds of vowels. -Simple(pure) vowel: Is a vowel sound that consists of one vowel only. There are (12) pure vowels . -Diphthong : Is a sequence of two pure vowels, in the pronunciation of which we glide smoothly from the first to the second vowel . There are (8) Diphthongs.

-Triphthong : Is a sequence of three pure vowels (or a diphthong and a pure vowel) in which we glide smoothly from the first vowel to the second and to the third vowel without any interruption. There are (5) Triphthongs .( O'Connor , 1988 ) Simple vowels are: Pure vowels are described according to four principles.  The height of the tongue in the month (high(close), mid, low(open).  The part of the tongue which is raised to pronounce the vowel. (front, central, back).  Lip rounding (rounded, unrounded).  The length (short , long )

The organic classification of speech sounds: The way to define the phonetic habits of a given language is not exhaustively defined by stating that it makes use of such and such particular sounds. There remains the important question of the dynamics of these phonetic elements. Two languages may, theoretically, be built up of precisely the same series of consonants and vowels and yet produce utterly different acoustic effects. One of them may not recognize striking variations in the lengths or “quantities” of the phonetic elements, the other may note such variations most punctiliously (in probably the majority of languages long and short vowels are distinguished; in many, as in Italian or Swedish or Ojibwa, long consonants are recognized as distinct from short ones). Or the one, say English, may be very sensitive to relative stresses, while in the other, say French, stress is a very minor consideration. Or, again, the pitch differences which are inseparable from the actual practice of language may not affect the word as such, but, as in English, may be a more or less random or, at best, but a rhetorical phenomenon, while in other languages, as in Swedish, Lithuanian, they may be more finely graduated and felt as integral characteristics of the words themselves. And despite the responsibility of varying methods of syllabifying for acoustic difference. Most important of all, perhaps, are the very different possibilities of combining the phonetic elements. Each language has its peculiarities. The ts combination, for instance, is found in both English and German, but in English it can only occur at the end of a word (as in hats), while it occurs freely in German as the psychological equivalent of a single sound (as in Zeit, Katze). Frequently a sound occurs only in a special position or under special phonetic circumstances. In English, for instance, the z-sound of azure cannot occur initially, while the peculiar quality of the t of sting is dependent on its being preceded by the s. The objective comparison of sounds in two or more languages is, then, of no psychological or historical significance unless these sounds are first “weighted,” unless their phonetic “values” are determined. These values, in turn, flow from the general behavior and functioning of the sounds in actual speech. These considerations as to phonetic value lead to an important conception. Back of the purely objective system of sounds that is peculiar to a language and which can be arrived at only by a painstaking phonetic analysis.

References: - Ladefoged, P. 2001.vowels and consonants: an introduction to the sound of English. Blackwell. Ltd. -Roch, P. 2009. English phonetics and phonology .4th edition. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. -Munson, B.2009 .levels of phonological abstraction and socially motivated speech sound variation. University of Minnesota. - Fernandez, E .2011.Fundamentals of Psycholinguistics. West Sussex: Wiley- Blackwell. -A.c,gimson .1989,fourth edition.an introduction to the pronunciation of English. New York, Rutledge chapman ltd. -Roca & Jhonson.2000.a course in phonology.2nd edition. Blackwell publisher ltd. - Ladefoged, P, Madison, I.1996.The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. -Akmajian, Adrian, Ritchard A.Demers, Ann K.Farmer, and Robert M.Harnish.2001. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. MIT Press. -Crystal, D.2006. How language works. Clay Ltd. England. -Crystal, D.2003. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. -O'Connor, J.1988. Phonetics. Penguin, Australia and UK.

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