The Road To War Pdf

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Information about The Road To War Pdf

Published on February 2, 2008

Author: mrjportman

Source: slideshare.net

Hitler’s aims, the steps to war, Appeasement, the Sudeten Crisis, the Nazi-Soviet pact THE ROAD TO WAR HO LG Y 11 A T E S C Pap HISTOR HOOL er 1 : topi Y GCSE c: W THE W2 R WA R O A D T : WW O 2 V I M P E RY ORT ANT It is important that ! we understand what Hitler’s aims were What were Hitler’s Aims? because they are so central in HITLER’S MAIN AIMS LAY understanding why OUTSIDE OF GERMANY WW2 broke out. ABOLISH THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES The Germans hated it, especially: Germany’s tiny armed forces, the demilitarized zone in Rhineland, the fact that Anschluss (union) with Austria was forbidden and the idea that Germans were forced to live in Czechoslovakia (the Sudetenland) and Poland. The Treaty was a constant reminder to the Germans of their humiliation in World War I. Hitler did not accept that the German army had lost the war, and he was determined to make Germany great again. The Palace of Versailles where the treaty was signed in 1919. EXPAND GERMAN TERRITORY The German population was growing. Hitler said that the German nation needed more Lebensraum (‘living space’). He was determined to get Lebensraum by conquering land in eastern Europe. This was connected with his belief that the Aryan race was genetically superior and destined to rule over others. Hitler believed he had the right to Adolf Hitler The flag of communist Russia invade eastern Europe and make the Slav peoples Germany's slaves. DESTROY COMMUNISM The Nazis were Fascists: the exact opposite of the Communists who ruled Russia. Hitler blamed the Communists for Germany's defeat in World War One, and he feared that the Communists were trying to take over Germany. He was determined to destroy Communism, and this meant a war with Russia. 5 A modern day map of Eastern Europe

THE STEPS TO WAR The Road to War is a paper 1 t o p i c. I t mainly appears in the exam with specific reference to ‘appeasement’. The Treaty of Versailles had put the Saar under the control of the League of Nations 1935: THE SAAR for 15 years. In 1935 the inhabitants of the Saar voted to return to Germany. The Saar plebiscite is cited by many historians as the first step to war. PLEBISCITE Hitler began to build up his armed forces. In 1935 he introduced conscription 1935: REARMAMENT OF (calling up men to the army). This broke the Treaty of Versailles, but Britain and France let him get away with it. GERMAN ARMY Hitler invaded the Rhineland on 7 March 1936. This broke the Treaty of Versailles. It was a bluff – the German army had only 22,000 soldiers and had orders to retreat if 1936: RHINELAND they met any resistance. But once again, Britain and France did nothing. OCCUPIED In 1938, Hitler took over Austria. First, Hitler encouraged the Austrian Nazis to 1938: ANCHLUSS demand union with Germany. Then Hitler invaded Austria (11 March 1938). This broke the Treaty of Versailles, but Britain and France did nothing. WITH AUSTRIA In 1938, Hitler tried to take over the Sudetenland. First, Hitler encouraged the 1938: THE Sudeten Nazis to demand union with Germany. Then, Hitler made plans to invade Czechoslovakia. Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler. At Munich, on 29 September SUDETENLAND 1938, Hitler got permission from Britain and France to occupy the Sudetenland. On 15 March 1939, Hitler’s troops marched into the rest of Czechoslovakia. This, for 1939: HITLER TAKES most British people, was the time when they realised that the only thing that would stop Hitler was a war. Chamberlain promised the Poles that Britain would support OVER CZECHOSLOVAKIA them if Germany attacked Poland. In summer 1939, Hitler began to unfold his plan to take over Poland. He made a secret 1939: GERMANY pact with the USSR (known as the Nazi-Soviet Pact) which promised not to attack one another. At the same time, they promised to attack Poland and split the country into 2. INVADES POLAND: The invasion took place and war was declared on the 3rd September 1939. WAR DECLARED

APPEASEMENT THE STEPS TO WAR Giving in to a bully in order to stop something bad from happening 'Appeasement' means 'giving in to a In the 1930s, there were some bully'. Nowadays, many people people – most notably Winston criticize Chamberlain for appeasing Churchill – who opposed his policy. Hitler. There were many reasons He believed that Appeasement why Britain 'appeased' Hitler in the allowed Hitler to think that he could 1930s: some British people approved get away with anything and that of Hitler's policies, some hoped that failing top stop Hitler re-arming Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain thought that a strong Germany would stop the allowed Germany to grow stronger. appeasing Hitler was the growth of Communist Russia, some Chamberlain faced some criticism at only way to prevent war. felt that events in Europe were not the time but it should be Britain's business, nearly all of British remembered that many people people wanted peace and avoid the praised him. It was appeasement horrors of WW1, and many agreed that allowed Hitler to make so many with Hitler that the Treaty of gains during the 1930s. Versailles was unfair. Give thanks to your God. Your children are safe. Peace is a victory for all mankind. If we must have a victor, let us choose Mr Chamberlain. SOURCE A: The Daily Express Sept 1938 Winston Churchill SOURCE B: A British cartoon of 1938 shows Germany crushing Austria. Next in line is Czechoslovakia. At the back, Britain says to France, who is next-to-last: ‘Why should we take a stand about someone pushing someone else when it’s all so far away?’

IN ACTION APPEASEMENT SMACK HIM! This part of appeasement is very important, its almost certain to come up in the exam. CHAMBERLAIN RETURNS FROM THE MUNICH CONFERENCE & HOLDS ALOFT A PIECE OF PAPER AND SAYS: “PEACE FOR OUR TIME” The Sudeten Crisis of 1938 is the October and threatened to invade. key example of appeasement in Britain prepared for war as all action. It should be remembered seemed lost. At the last moment that Hitler had already been Britain, France, Italy and Germany allowed to occupy the Rhineland, met at the Munich conference. rearm the Germany army and unite with Austria (all against theHitler assured Chamberlain that Treaty of Versailles). In 1938, this was the last issue that needed Hitler wanted to united Germans solving and consequently Britain The map shows Germany & the Sudetenland living in the border areas of and France ‘gave’ the Sudetenland Czechoslovakia (the Sudetenland). to Hitler (without even consulting the Czech President) Chamberlain Hitler demanded that returned to England as a hero, he Czechoslovakia should hand the waved a piece of paper in the air Sudetenland over to Germany. and said that he had “peace for When the Czechs refused tensions our time”. The note had a promise in Europe ran incredibly high with from the so called ‘Munich even Chamberlain hinting that Agreement’. Six months later - ‘other’ countries could become Hitler went against his promise involved. On the 22nd September and invaded Poland: two days Chamberlain held talks with Hitler later Chamberlain declared war on where he would later persuade the Hitler and WW2 began. Czech President to hand over the Sudetenland to Hitler. War seemed to have been avoided. “I remember it well. We were all given gas masks and sand bags However, Hitler then demanded were piled high all across London. We thought war was inevitable until that he should have the good old Mr Chamberlain came back from that Munich Conference.” Sudetenland before the 1st [4] SOURCE A: Arthur Brownhill commenting on the Sudeten Crisis 2005

The Nazi-Soviet Pact The Road to WW2 On 23 August, 1939, the world was shocked when, suddenly, Russia and Germany signed a Non-aggression Pact. People would have been even more shocked if they had known at the time that, in addition, the two countries had a secret agreement to invade and divide Poland between them. Stalin knew that Hitler’s ultimate aim was to attack Russia. In 1939, he invited Lord Halifax, the British Foreign Secretary to go to Russia to discuss an alliance against Germany. Britain refused. The British feared Russian Communism, and they believed that the Russian army was too weak to be of any use against Germany. Stalin - Leader of the USSR Many historians believe that this helped to bring war closer because Hitler didn’t think that Britain and France would fight Germany knowing that they had an alliance with Russia. It also led to an official pact between Britain and Poland so when the invasion SOURCE A: quot;Rendezvousquot; by David Low - Hitler came Chamberlain had no choice but to declare war. says: quot;The scum of the Earth I believe.quot; Stalin says: quot;The bloody assassin of the workers I presume?quot; The world was amazed by this alliance of opposites, but, at the time Stalin needed time to re-arm for when Hitler did invade Russia. It was a marriage of convenience, until Hitler broke his promise and invaded Russia in 1940. Michael Smith - British historian 2006 SOURCE B: Another cartoon about the Nazi-Soviet pact by David Low. [5]

SMACK the EXAMINER in the face! Give yourself a head start and recognise the questions that have appeared in previous exams based on the topic that you have been learning about. We will practice them in class, you should also do this at home during revision. Your parents could help you. REMEMBER: Paper 1: The Road to war 1933-1939 SK + ET = SUCCESS A selection from the 2004, 2005, 2006 exam papers *Remember: the exam paper does not look like this! a) What does Source A tell us about Hitler’s aims in Source A Hitler’s aims in foreign policy foreign policy? (3 marks) ‘Hitler aimed to make Germany into a great power again by destroying the hated Treaty of Versailles, b) How accurate is the view given in Source B of building up the army, recovering lost territory and the aims of Britain and France at Munich ? Use bringing all Germans within the Reich. This last aim Source D and your knowledge to explain your would involve the annexation of Austria and the taking answer. (6 marks) of territory from Czechoslovakia and Poland.’ YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: • WWW - Who, When, Why? • What was going on at the time? Source B: A Soviet view of the Munich Agreement • Who was the audience? 1938 (From ‘Anti-Soviet Conspiracy’ by A.O. • Why was it produced What was the purpose? Chubaryan, a Soviet historian, published in 1969.) • Does it match up with the event, is this what happened? • Is it accurate based on WWW and what you know about the event? ‘Why did Britain and France allow Hitler to achieve his aims at Munich? There is only one answer possible: the governments of Great Britain and France wanted to c) How accurate is the view in Source C of Hitler’s divert German aggression towards the east, to satisfy aims in foreign policy in the 1930s? Hitler’s aims at the expense of the east European YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: countries. Britain and France feared the increase of • WWW - Who, When, Why? Germany’s strength in Europe. Both hoped to appease • What was going on at the time? Hitler by giving him some Czech territory. They wanted • Who was the audience? to make Germany and the Soviet Union weaker by • Why was it produced What was the purpose? involving them in conflict.’ • Does it match up with the event, is this what happened? • Is it accurate based on WWW and what you know about Source C Hitler’s aims in foreign policy (From a the event? speech by Adolf Hitler in Berlin in 1941) d) How accurate is the view in Source D of the ‘My programme was to abolish the Treaty of Versailles. importance of the decisions made at Munich in No human being has declared or recorded what he September 1938? (6 marks) wanted to do more often than I. Again and again I wrote YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: these words – the abolition of the Treaty of Versailles.’ • WWW - Who, When, Why? • What was going on at the time? Source D The Munich Agreement - Neville • Who was the audience? Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister, speaking to • Why was it produced What was the purpose? the crowd in Downing Street after his return from • Does it match up with the event, is this what happened? • Is it accurate based on WWW and what you know about Munich in October 1938. the event? ‘My good friends: we have come back from Germany bringing peace with honour, I believe that it is peace for [6] time.’ our

SMACK the EXAMINER in the face! continued... e) Which was the bigger threat to European peace in the 1930s; * The re-militarisation of the Rhineland, 1936; * The Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939? You must refer to both parts when explaining your answer.(10 marks) YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: o Describe, Explain , Assess each of the points. o Say what happened, say how it is linked to the question, o Assess which was the most important reason. o Write 4 paragraphs: An introduction where you ‘smack the examiner in the face’ by directly answering the question, one paragraph per point and one paragraph as a conclusion. Your conclusion should make a decision as to which one is the most important and to give evidence for your conclusion. f) Which of the following events was the greater success in Hitler’s foreign policy: * The re-militarisation of the Rhineland in 1936; * The occupation of the Sudetenland in 1938? You must refer to both events when explaining your answer. (10 marks) YOU SHOULD THINK ABOUT: o Describe, Explain , Assess each of the points. o Say what happened, say how it is linked to the question, o Assess which was the most important reason. o Write 4 paragraphs: An introduction where you ‘smack the examiner in the face’ by directly answering the question, one paragraph per point and one paragraph as a conclusion. Your conclusion should make a decision as to which one is the most important and to give evidence for your conclusion.

SMACK the EXAMINER in the face! A selection of MARK SCHEMES from the 2004, 2005, 2006 exam papers. Use them to help practice your exam questions from the previous page. b) How accurate is the view given in Source B of the aims of Britain and France at Munich ? Use Source D and your knowledge to explain your answer. (6 marks) L1 – Statement about the source’s limitations/ content (1) L2 – Inferences (suggestions) made about the content of the source (2-3) L3 – Considers ‘WWW’: What was going on at the time? Who the audience was? Why it was produced/ What the purpose is? OR Use of own knowledge of the period to question the accuracy. (4-5) L4 – Combines both parts of L3 (WWW and Own Know.) (6) c) How accurate is the view in Source C of Hitler’s aims in foreign policy in the 1930s? L1 – Statement about the source’s limitations/ content (1) L2 – Inferences (suggestions) made about the content of the source (2-3) L3 – Considers ‘WWW’: What was going on at the time? Who the audience was? Why it was produced/ What the purpose is? OR Use of own knowledge of the period to question the accuracy. (4-5) L4 – Combines both parts of L3 (WWW and Own Know.) (6) d) How accurate is the view in Source D of the importance of the decisions made at Munich in September 1938? (6 marks) L1 – Statement about the source’s limitations/ content (1) L2 – Inferences (suggestions) made about the content of the source (2-3) L3 – Considers ‘WWW’: What was going on at the time? Who the audience was? Why it was produced/ What the purpose is? OR Use of own knowledge of the period to question the accuracy. (4-5) L4 – Combines both parts of L3 (WWW and Own Know.) (6) e) Which was the bigger threat to European peace in the 1930s; * The re-militarisation of the Rhineland, 1936; * The Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939? You must refer to both parts when explaining your answer.(10 marks) L1 Simple descriptive narrative with general coverage of the topic. (1-2 marks) e.g. makes simple statements about the re-militarisation/Pact, possibly with a comment that it was a threat to peace; why it was important to Hitler; why Stalin signed it; its consequences.

L2 Develops one cause OR Covers both with some development or explanation. This will involve description or explanation of both with little focus on the question (3-5 marks) e.g. describes and explains the occupation of the Rhineland - why it was forbidden; Hitler’s views . the risk he took; why it was ignored by GB and France. Describes and explains the Nazi Soviet Pact L3 A structured answer covering both bullet points, though one may be in greater depth, focused on the question. (6-8) Must be some assessment of at least one with focus on the question for this level. Reasoned arguments with judgement but little supporting evidence should be placed at this level. Level 4 Balanced well argued answer covering both parts, focused on the question. e.g. assesses both parts relatively in depth and reaches an explained judgement. (9-10) f) Which of the following events was the greater success in Hitler’s foreign policy: * The re-militarisation of the Rhineland in 1936; * The occupation of the Sudetenland in 1938? You must refer to both events when explaining your answer. (10 marks) L1: EITHER Simple descriptive statement based on own knowledge(1-2) e.g. Hitler sent his troops into the Rhineland in 1936. Hitler was given the Sudetenland at Munich in 1938. L2 Develops one cause OR Covers both with some development or explanation. This will involve description or explanation of both with little focus on the question (3-5 marks) e.g describes what happened in the Rhineland, explains why it was successful, why GB and France did not resist, assesses success of Hitler, what he had gained, the risk he had taken etc. OR Describes Hitler’s meetings with Chamberlain, explains why Hitler was given the Sudetenland, assesses Hitler’s success. L3 A structured answer covering both bullet points, though one may be in greater depth, focused on the question. (6-8) Must be some assessment of at least one with focus on the question for this level. Reasoned arguments with judgement but little supporting evidence should be placed at this level. Level 4: Balanced well argued answer covering both parts, focused on the question. e.g. assesses both parts relatively and in depth. Must reach a reasoned judgement for top of level. 9-10

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