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The Rise of Civilization

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Information about The Rise of Civilization

Published on October 3, 2007

Author: albano

Source: slideshare.net

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Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia II. Ancient Egypt III. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia II. Ancient Egypt III. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia Civilization by 3000 B.C.E. Writing Expanded cities Complex social structure Religion A. The Sumerians Tigris and Euphrates plain Irrigation > food surplus Sumerians in c. 4000 B.C.E. Political and Social Organization City-States Establish boundaries State religion Courts Kings Defense, war Priests With kings, administer state land and slaves

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia

Civilization by 3000 B.C.E.

Writing Expanded cities Complex social structure Religion

A. The Sumerians

Tigris and Euphrates plain Irrigation > food surplus Sumerians in c. 4000 B.C.E.

Political and Social Organization City-States Establish boundaries

State religion

Courts

Kings

Defense, war

Priests

With kings, administer state land and slaves

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia A. The Sumerians Culture and Religion Writing Cuneiform: stylus on clay tablets Phonetic Scribes Gilgamesh Astronomy Numeric system Religion Patron gods

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia

A. The Sumerians

Culture and Religion Writing

Cuneiform: stylus on clay tablets

Phonetic

Scribes

Gilgamesh Astronomy

Numeric system

Religion

Patron gods

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia A. The Sumerians Gains and Losses Greater inequalities: gender, class, wealth B. Later Mesopotamian Cultures The Akkadian Empire Sargon I c. 2400 B.C.E. To Egypt and Ethiopia The Babylonian Empire c. 1800 B.C.E. , unites Hammurabi Law Code Scientific knowledge expanded Hittites c. 1600 B.C.E. , conquer Babylonians Fragmentation 1200 to 900 B.C.E.

I. Civilization in Mesopotamia

A. The Sumerians

Gains and Losses

Greater inequalities: gender, class, wealth

B. Later Mesopotamian Cultures

The Akkadian Empire

Sargon I

c. 2400 B.C.E. To Egypt and Ethiopia

The Babylonian Empire

c. 1800 B.C.E. , unites Hammurabi

Law Code

Scientific knowledge expanded

Hittites c. 1600 B.C.E. , conquer Babylonians Fragmentation 1200 to 900 B.C.E.

II. Ancient Egypt A. Basic Patterns of Egyptian Society Farming by 5000 B.C.E. Civilization emerges by 3200 B.C.E. Difference: no city‑states Government Pharaoh, intermediary between gods and men Bureaucracy Regional governors B. Egyptian Ideas and Art Hieroglyphic alphabet Pictograms, phonetic Papyrus Monopolized by priesthood Medicine Religion Isis, Osiris, Horus Cycle of life, annual rise and fall of Nile Egypt, Kush and Axum

II. Ancient Egypt A. Basic Patterns of Egyptian Society Farming by 5000 B.C.E. Civilization emerges by 3200 B.C.E.

Difference: no city‑states

Government

Pharaoh, intermediary between gods and men Bureaucracy Regional governors

B. Egyptian Ideas and Art

Hieroglyphic alphabet

Pictograms, phonetic

Papyrus

Monopolized by priesthood

Medicine

Religion Isis, Osiris, Horus

Cycle of life, annual rise and fall of Nile

II. Ancient Egypt C. Continuity and Change Old Kingdom Invasions from Palestine, c. 2200 B.C.E. End of Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom Restoration Control of Sudan New Kingdom c. 1570 B.C.E. Greater international contact

II. Ancient Egypt

C. Continuity and Change

Old Kingdom

Invasions from Palestine, c. 2200 B.C.E.

End of Old Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

Restoration

Control of Sudan

New Kingdom

c. 1570 B.C.E.

Greater international contact

III. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared A. Differences Political form Mesopotamian city-states Egyptian centralized government Epic tradition Gilgamesh in Mesopotamia None in Egypt Building Monumental, use of stone in Egypt Use of brick, not so immense in Mesopotamia Trade, outside contact Greater in Mesopotamia than in Egypt Greater technological advances in Mesopotamia Women had higher status in Egypt

III. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared

A. Differences Political form

Mesopotamian city-states Egyptian centralized government Epic tradition

Gilgamesh in Mesopotamia

None in Egypt

Building

Monumental, use of stone in Egypt

Use of brick, not so immense in Mesopotamia

Trade, outside contact

Greater in Mesopotamia than in Egypt

Greater technological advances in Mesopotamia

Women had higher status in Egypt

III. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared B. Similarities Stratified society Noble, land-owning class Priesthoods Astronomy and mathematics important Both conservative except when under outside threat C. Women Patriarchal society Males dominate political life Female roles less important Women have some religious roles

III. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared

B. Similarities

Stratified society

Noble, land-owning class

Priesthoods

Astronomy and mathematics important

Both conservative except when under outside threat

C. Women

Patriarchal society

Males dominate political life Female roles less important

Women have some religious roles

IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean Various centers from c. 20000 to 1000 B.C.E. A. Kush Southern Nile, Egyptian border Independent existence by 1000 B.C.E. Conquered Egypt by 730 B.C.E. After Assyrian conquest of Egypt Kush moves south Meroë, 6th century Height from 250 B.C.E. to 50 C.E. center of iron working Defeated by Axum, c. 300 C.E.

IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

Various centers from c. 20000 to 1000 B.C.E.

A. Kush

Southern Nile, Egyptian border

Independent existence by 1000 B.C.E.

Conquered Egypt by 730 B.C.E. After Assyrian conquest of Egypt

Kush moves south

Meroë, 6th century

Height from 250 B.C.E. to 50 C.E.

center of iron working

Defeated by Axum, c. 300 C.E.

IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean B. The Mediterranean Region Hebrews Semitic From c.1600 B.C.E. Yahweh Torah Minoans Crete, from c. 1600 B.C.E. Trade with Egypt, Mesopotamia Egyptian influence: architecture, math, writing Mesopotamia: political traditions Conquer Greek mainland Mycenae The Eastern Mediterranean, c. 1100 B.C.E.

IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

B. The Mediterranean Region

Hebrews Semitic

From c.1600 B.C.E.

Yahweh

Torah Minoans

Crete, from c. 1600 B.C.E.

Trade with Egypt, Mesopotamia

Egyptian influence: architecture, math, writing

Mesopotamia: political traditions

Conquer Greek mainland

Mycenae

IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean B. The Mediterranean Region Phoenicians c. 2000 B.C.E. , Lebanese coast Not unified, several city-states Alphabet, spread to other civilizations Colonization To Atlantic, Iberia, Britain Carthage Independent power Conquered by Assyrians C. The Issue of Heritage Legacy? Disruption after 1200 B.C.E. . Indo-Europeans Use of iron Rulers Not god-kings Chosen by warriors The Eastern Mediterranean, c. 1100 B.C.E.

IV. Civilization Centers in Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

B. The Mediterranean Region

Phoenicians

c. 2000 B.C.E. , Lebanese coast

Not unified, several city-states

Alphabet, spread to other civilizations

Colonization

To Atlantic, Iberia, Britain

Carthage

Independent power Conquered by Assyrians C. The Issue of Heritage Legacy?

Disruption after 1200 B.C.E. .

Indo-Europeans

Use of iron

Rulers Not god-kings Chosen by warriors

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