The Rise Of African Civilization

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Information about The Rise Of African Civilization

Published on March 26, 2008

Author: rhalter

Source: slideshare.net

The Rise of African Civilization

Background Powerful trading empires will develop in both eastern and western Africa Africa will become more involved in the global trade network The people of Africa will maintain strong traditions around family, villages, and religious beliefs

Powerful trading empires will develop in both eastern and western Africa

Africa will become more involved in the global trade network

The people of Africa will maintain strong traditions around family, villages, and religious beliefs

Varied Geography Africa is the second largest continent on earth and makes up more than 1/5 of the earths land surface Much of the continent is dominated by savanna and desert Savanna areas tend to have larger populations because they receive enough rainfall to support agriculture Much of the continent is covered by desert, including the Sahara, the worlds largest The Sahara continues to grow as a result of desertification, or land changing into desert caused by drought, deforestation, and overgrazing There is a small belt of rainforest along the equator Few natural harbors or navigable rivers

Africa is the second largest continent on earth and makes up more than 1/5 of the earths land surface

Much of the continent is dominated by savanna and desert

Savanna areas tend to have larger populations because they receive enough rainfall to support agriculture

Much of the continent is covered by desert, including the Sahara, the worlds largest

The Sahara continues to grow as a result of desertification, or land changing into desert caused by drought, deforestation, and overgrazing

There is a small belt of rainforest along the equator

Few natural harbors or navigable rivers

African Savanna

Sahara Desert

Traditional Society Village Government – power was shared among the members of the community, not a single leader Family Patterns – traditional people lived in both nuclear and extended families. The GROUP was always more important than the individual. Religious Beliefs – Early Africans identified with the forces of nature and the belief that all living and non-living things contained spirits, this is called animism

Village Government – power was shared among the members of the community, not a single leader

Family Patterns – traditional people lived in both nuclear and extended families. The GROUP was always more important than the individual.

Religious Beliefs – Early Africans identified with the forces of nature and the belief that all living and non-living things contained spirits, this is called animism

Art – often reflected beliefs of the people

Rise of African Kingdoms Many African towns became part of the global trade network Gold and salt were the two most important exports Strong rulers created powerful kingdoms by gaining control of the profitable trade routes These kingdoms included Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in West Africa and Axum in East Africa

Many African towns became part of the global trade network

Gold and salt were the two most important exports

Strong rulers created powerful kingdoms by gaining control of the profitable trade routes

These kingdoms included Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in West Africa and Axum in East Africa

Kingdoms of West Africa

Ghana Around 800, many villages united to form the kingdom of Ghana Ghana profited from their income in the gold trade Muslim merchants brought their religion and ideas to Ghana Ghana absorbed Arabic writing and Muslim styles of architecture Many however will keep their traditional religious values

Around 800, many villages united to form the kingdom of Ghana

Ghana profited from their income in the gold trade

Muslim merchants brought their religion and ideas to Ghana

Ghana absorbed Arabic writing and Muslim styles of architecture

Many however will keep their traditional religious values

Village Life in Ghana

Mali Mali was ruled by powerful kings called mansas Under Mansa Musa, their most powerful ruler, Mali extended its borders and dominated west Africa Mali also profited from the gold trade A large army was created to keep the order and prevent invasions The majority of the people were farmers and herders Mansa Musa ran an efficient government, appointing governors to rule particular areas Mansa Musa also converted to Islam, basing his system of law on the Koran He also made the city of Timbuktu a center of Muslim learning

Mali was ruled by powerful kings called mansas

Under Mansa Musa, their most powerful ruler, Mali extended its borders and dominated west Africa

Mali also profited from the gold trade

A large army was created to keep the order and prevent invasions

The majority of the people were farmers and herders

Mansa Musa ran an efficient government, appointing governors to rule particular areas

Mansa Musa also converted to Islam, basing his system of law on the Koran

He also made the city of Timbuktu a center of Muslim learning

Timbuktu

Songhai The emperor Sonni Ali turned Songhai into the largest state that had ever existed in in West Africa He was also a Muslim The empire expanded its trade into Europe and Asia Civil War in the 1500’s brought the empire to a collapse

The emperor Sonni Ali turned Songhai into the largest state that had ever existed in in West Africa

He was also a Muslim

The empire expanded its trade into Europe and Asia

Civil War in the 1500’s brought the empire to a collapse

Kingdom of Songhai

Axum Located in East Africa, Axum’s location on the Red Sea helped them create a thriving trade route linking Africa, India, and the Mediterranean world Many of Axum’s people were from Arabia. They brought with them the religions of the Middle East

Located in East Africa, Axum’s location on the Red Sea helped them create a thriving trade route linking Africa, India, and the Mediterranean world

Many of Axum’s people were from Arabia. They brought with them the religions of the Middle East

Kingdom of Axum

African City States Africa played a major role in global trade The Mediterranean and Red Seas linked Africa to the Middle East and Europe The Indian Ocean linked Africa to India and Asia The blending of African and Middle Eastern cultures led to a new language called Swahili

Africa played a major role in global trade

The Mediterranean and Red Seas linked Africa to the Middle East and Europe

The Indian Ocean linked Africa to India and Asia

The blending of African and Middle Eastern cultures led to a new language called Swahili

Contributions Art – closely tied to religion, made from ivory, wood, and bronze Literary Traditions – folktales were passed on from generation to generation, Arabic was a popular written language Education – in most societies, it was the duty of the elders to teach boys and girls their roles in the village Commerce – trade allowed many empires to prosper and develop as a result of cultural diffusion

Art – closely tied to religion, made from ivory, wood, and bronze

Literary Traditions – folktales were passed on from generation to generation, Arabic was a popular written language

Education – in most societies, it was the duty of the elders to teach boys and girls their roles in the village

Commerce – trade allowed many empires to prosper and develop as a result of cultural diffusion

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