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Information about THE RENAISSANCE

Published on October 31, 2007

Author: Nikita


Renaissance Powerpoint for Honors World History:  Renaissance Powerpoint for Honors World History Remember to print only in black and white. Set your printer to “fast draft” so that you can conserve ink. THE RENAISSANCE :  THE RENAISSANCE CLASS NOTES Alabama Course of Study #1 Objective: Student will describe developments in Italy and Northern Europe during the Renaissance period with respect to humanism, arts and literature, intellectual development, increased trade, and advances in technology. The Keys to Understanding the Renaissance :  The Keys to Understanding the Renaissance I. CLASSICAL ERA Greeks city states “Golden Age” : direct democracy, arts, literature and philosophy Natural law and Greek Ideal Man Roman Empire :  Roman Empire Pax Romana: economic and political stability, arts, literature, Christianity divides between Rome and Constantinople Rome collapse 476 AD and Constantinople 1453 AD End of an Empire…beginning of a new historical era::  End of an Empire…beginning of a new historical era: What would it mean to live at the time of an empire collapsing? The Reign of the Barbarian by Chesterton For the end of the world was long ago And we all dwell today As some children of a second birth Like a strange people left on earth After a judgement day. Slide6:  Before the invention of mechanical printing, books were handmade objects, treasured as works of art and as symbols of enduring knowledge. Indeed, in the Middle Ages, the book becomes an attribute of God (17.190.757). Every stage in the creation of a medieval book required intensive labor, sometimes involving the collaboration of entire workshops. Parchment for the pages had to be made from the dried hides of animals, cut to size and sewn into quires; inks had to be mixed, pens prepared, and the pages ruled for lettering. A scribe copied the text from an established edition, and artists might then embellish it with illustrations, decorated initials, and ornament in the margins. The most lavish medieval books were bound in covers set with enamels, jewels, and ivory carvings (17.190.33). Many bookmakers in the Middle Ages were monks, and monasteries kept libraries filled not only with sacred texts but also with literary, scientific, and philosophical works by Greek and Roman authors. Multivolume Bibles and huge liturgical books were housed and used in churches. Princes and emperors commissioned gospel books with many-colored illustrations and lettering in gold and silver ink. II. Medieval Era :  II. Medieval Era feudalism- power of Catholic Church, eventual schism Magna Carta Signed Islam Crusades Mongols Marco Polo Gunpowder Banks-checking accounts compass RENAISSANCE 1300-1600 :  RENAISSANCE 1300-1600 ITALIAN RENAISSANCE : Why Italy? “Geography is destiny” what does this mean? Urban: Why? How did this challenge feudalism? Bourgeois: How did this new class threaten nobles? Ruins of Rome: How did this serve to inspire Renaissance writers and artists? Petrarch: Father of Humanism:  Petrarch: Father of Humanism When and where did he live? Quotes that typify his beliefs and Renaissance character: “It is possible that some word of me may have come to you, though even this is doubtful, since an insignificant and obscure name will scarcely penetrate far in either time or space. If, however, you should have heard of me, you may desire to know what manner of man I was, or what was the outcome of my labours, especially those of which some description or, at any rate, the bare titles may have reached you. “ “I am unlike anyone else I know”: why was this radical? “O inglorious age! That scorns antiquity, …what Petrarch lamenting in this passage? Note: Petrarch often wrote in the vernacular. Why is this significant to the Renaissance? Slide10:  Francesco Petrarch was born shortly after 1300 in a time and place where very few could read or write and those that did considered it a chore where as Petrarch saw a blessing. His passion to write his thoughts to paper was only overcome by the need to sleep or eat. So great was his desire to write his thoughts and feelings and so difficult was it to find anyone in Europe to match his desire he found himself writing to Cicero, one of the only people he believed really shared his passion. (Cicero was a Roman Poet/Politician that died over 1200 years before Petrarch was born). His writings would go on to influence countless others such as Boccaccio to write his own great works. And centuries later others such as Shakespeare would study his works and copy his sonnets. Petrarch lived through the harshest bouts of the plague and lost nearly everyone he knew to it. His mother and father had died in his early years but his son, his grandson, numerous friends and a woman named Laura for which his writings of her will live on forever, all died as victims of the disease. So great were his writings that royalty treated him, the son of exiled nobles, like a king and in a letter to a friend he even goes as far as to say that he has caused his own plague to spread over Europe, one which has caused people to take up pen and paper and write and read. And so ended the dark ages and the start of Humanism. Note: term “humanism” originated with Cicero And the use of “humanitas” cultural literature Leonardo Bruni :  Leonardo Bruni Why is he relevant to the study of early Renaissance writers? Bruni is credited with writing the first modern history because it used a tripartite division of antiquity, medieval and modern. (The term Middle Age was first coined by a contemporary Flavio Biondo.) (Petrarch died in the year that Bruni was born: 1374. Both men wrote about about a "Dark Age" covering the period from the time of the fall of Rome extending to the time of Petrarch. It was Bruni and his fellow humanists who believed they had reached the end of the Dark Age and were entering a modern period, and thus logically called the intervening period a Middle Age. It was Bruni who used the phrase studia humanitatis, meaning the study of human endeavours versus those of theology and metaphysics, which is where the term humanists comes from. One of several Florentinians who went to Greece and Byzantium (particularly Constantinople) and brought back collections of ancient books.  "Collections" is probably the wrong descriptive term.  Mostly these book buyers were merchants, and would just load up wagons with books with the intent on selling them to eager humanists. Leonardo Bruni:  Leonardo Bruni Significant quotes? “For seven hundred years…” “The foundations of all true learning…” Human Dignity:  Human Dignity Writings called the “renaissance manifesto” Inspired by Plato and Aristotle Master of Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic Pico della Mirandola:  Pico della Mirandola What quotes exemplify his “Renaissance humanist manifesto”? “at last it seems to me… “O supreme generosity of God the Father, O highest and most marvelous felicity of man! To him it is granted to have whatever he chooses, to be whatever he wills.” Mirandola stresses that man possess great dignity because he is made in God’s image. Man’s place is in between angels and beasts, but because of divine likeness, man has no limits to his capabilities…link this humanism… Pico and Savonarola & Lorenzo de Medici:  Pico and Savonarola & Lorenzo de Medici Friends Got caught having an illicit affair Threatened with imprisonment and death Threatened with inquisition due to Oration and synthesis of antiquitities -Saved by Medici -convinced by Sav. To burn all possessions -he is believed to have been poisoned because of his association with Sav. Machiavelli:  Machiavelli Explain why he is a controversial contributor to the Renaissance legacy. What quotes typify his beliefs and strategies for a rulers to be successful? How do these three men influence him? Lorenzo de Medici Savonarola Cesar Borgia Artists of the Renaissance:  Artists of the Renaissance Who is considered the ideal Renaissance man by modern standards? Leonardo da Vinci was a man of "both" worlds. He was a master of both of art and science. Leonardo was a painter, architect, engineer, inventor, and scientist. Renaissance Standards: Martin Luther Leonardo da Vinci:  Leonardo da Vinci a. Virgin and Child b. The Virgin of the Rocks c. The Virgin and Child with St. Anne Oil paintings Theme: Describe: Leonardo the Engineer:  Leonardo the Engineer Machine for applying sequins to women’s clothing Helicopter flying machine 3. Winged armament flying machine Leonardo and anatomical sketches :  Leonardo and anatomical sketches Slide22:  Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper *See article on the “Myths of the da Vinci Code” Slide23:  What makes the Mona Lisa so famous and representative of the Renaissance ? Slide24:  Leonardo da Vinci’s sketches Slide25:  Michelangelo the sculptor… “The Pieta” Close up of the Pieta First “celebrity” wealthy Artist… Antagonistic relationship With da Vinci… “Moses” Slide26:  Facts about Michelangelo’s David: Slide27:  Andrea del Verrocchio David Florence 1465 Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel:  Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Slide29:  From the Sistine Chapel God gives life to Adam… Slide30:  “The Last Judgment: Controversy: Slide31:  The School Of Athens Why Does This Piece Exemplify Art of The Renaissance? Master of Perspective Classical elements Raphael. The School of Athens, 1509 Plato and Aristotle, center, Zeno, Epicurus, Pythagoras, Xenophon,, Socrates, Diogenes, Euclid, Zoroaster and Ptolemy. Artists pictured include Michelangelo Buonarroti (as Heraclitus), Leonardo da Vinci (as Plato), Donato Bramante (as Euclid), Raphael Brunelleschi’s Dome:  Brunelleschi’s Dome It is one of the western world's greatest architectural mysteries: exactly how was the enormous dome of the Florence Cathedral constructed? In 1418, the city of Florence announced a competition for a design for the dome of the city's new cathedral, Santa Maria del Fiore. What resulted was a fierce contest between several Florentine artists and architects to secure this very important commission. As the winner of the competition, Filippo Brunelleschi created a bold design for the dome in what was (and still is) the largest dome in the world. At 143 feet in diameter the construction of the dome would require daring innovations in engineering that anyone but a genius architect, such as Brunelleschi, would certainly avoid Northern European Renaissance :  Northern European Renaissance -Mostly rural -100 years war -Plague -CHRISTIAN -HUMANISM -ERASMUS Thomas More France and England unified under 1 king as opposed to Italian city states with merchant rulers. Northern Renaissance Artists:  Northern Renaissance Artists Full title: Portrait of Giovanni (?) Arnolfini and his Wife ('The Arnolfini Portrait') 1434 Northern Renaissance Artists: EYCK, Jan van Slide35:  The Ambassadors Hans Holbein Albrecht Durer BRUEGEL, Pieter the Elder Thomas More Erasmus ARTISTS AND WRITERS OF THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE POWER OF PRINTING PRESS :  POWER OF PRINTING PRESS REVOLUTIONS RELIGIOUS SCIENTIFIC POLITICAL Johannes Gutenberg: Millennium invention Legacy of the Printing Press: :  Legacy of the Printing Press: Writing ink dates from about 2500 BC in Egypt and China. They took the soot from fires and mixed it with sap. Later civilizations used plant material for ink, particularly the dark blue indigo plant. Gutenberg used an oil-based printing ink that would last longer than other inks used in his time. We don’t know much about Gutenberg because he was not famous during his lifetime. We know that he was born in Germany about 1400, and he worked as a goldsmith. In 1448, he developed engraved signatures for each number, letter, and punctuation mark. Gutenberg then built the molds to hold the signatures in place, and borrowed money to purchase a press. Gutenberg published the first mass-produced book: a 1,282 page Bible. To this day, more copies of the Bible have been printed than any other book. Copies of Gutenberg’s invention spread throughout Europe, but Gutenberg did not get rich from his invention. Patents did not yet exist, so anybody could build a printing press without compensating Gutenberg for his inspiration. Some religious and government officials denounced the invention of printing because they feared that it would spread bad ideas. But they were a minority. By 1500 there were 1,700 printing presses in Europe. The presses had already produced about 20 million volumes of 40,000 different books.

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