Published on April 6, 2014
The Principles of FLT
It has some principles the following Conscious Approach Individualization Accessibility and Durability Differentiated and Integrated Instruction Visuality Activity
Conscious Approach Causes It is one of the leading principles 1. Learning plays an important role in lanuage acquisition Enlarges intellectual capacities of learners elps to understand new concepts and express new ideas in the target language
The principle of Activity 1. The didactic principle of activity presupposes constant accumulation(toplanma) of knowledge and active participation of learners in the process of instruction 2. The intellectual activity can be obtained through guesswork, problem-solving questions, reading texts with their subsequent interpretation, etc.
3. The emotional activity takes place when the pupils are pleased with the work they perform, when they like to learn a FL, and like the way of teaching. 4. Speech activity appears during oral communication and is largely due to the intellectual and emotional activity which “feeds” it. To enhance the activity it is necessary to intensify the learning activity of the pupils. Group, choral and collective work can achieve this.
Every type of speech activity is characterized by its own set of grammar structures, rules and lexical material. Consequently, we should differentiate between teaching speaking and writing; teaching listening comprehension and speaking; teaching reading and writing; teaching prepared and unprepared speech, etc. Differentiated and Integrated Instruction
Visuality The principle of visuality or ostensive principle is realized in direct and visual modes of semantizing or explaining meanings, i.e. in the demonstration and naming by the teacher of objects, pictures and actions wherefrom the learners infer the meanings of words and expressions used. Visuality in methodology of FLT creates favourable conditions for sensual perceptions and brings another reality in instructive and educative process. The principle of visuality is considered to be one of the main methodological principles especially now that the instruction pursues practical aims.
Accessibility In FLT this principle is realized in conformity with teaching strategies to the pupils’ capacities so that they don’t experience insurmountable difficulties. The teaching materials should meet requirements of linguistic and psychological factors: 1. correspond to the age and mental abilities of the learners; be neither difficult nor easy; 2. be properly graded; 3. be heuristic in form and structure; 4. be presented in such a way that the pupils have to solve one problem at a time.
Durability This principle assumes particular importance in FLT because it is largely concerned with a constant growth of language and speech units, words, word- combinations, idioms, clichés which are to be stored and retained in the pupils’ memory so that the learners could use them in listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing.
Individualization This principle takes into account individual peculiarities of the learner, his background knowledge, what he knows, his spheres of interest, etc., i.e. cognitive styles. Cognitive styles have been defined as characteristic mental and psychological behaviours that “serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment” (Keefe, 1979).
The end Thanks for paying attention Murad Sanan
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