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The Power of Open Educational Resources

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Information about The Power of Open Educational Resources
Education

Published on March 15, 2014

Author: opencontent

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Keynote address delivered to the Maryland Distance Learning Association (MDLA), March 2014.
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The  Power  of     Open  Educa2onal  Resources   David  Wiley,  PhD   Chief  Academic  Officer,  Lumen  Learning   Scholar  in  Residence,  University  of  Utah  

Nice  and  Open   Meanings  maGer  

“Nice”  -­‐  late  13c.   "foolish,  stupid"  

“Nice”  -­‐  late  20c.   "kind,  thoughRul"  

What  If…   an  educator  revived  the  old  meaning?  

“Nice  people  are  certain     to  fail  my  course.”   Which  “nice”?     How  might  the  student  success   conversa2on  change?  

“Open”  –  Early  70s   “no  admission  requirements”  

“Open”  –  Late  00s   Evolved  into  a  much  more  nuanced,   specific  meaning  

Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   Any  kind  of  teaching  materials  –   textbooks,  syllabi,  lesson  plans,   videos,  readings,  exams  

Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   1.  Free  and  unfeGered  access,  and   2.  Free  permission  to  engage  in  the     “5R  ac2vi2es”  

•  Make and own copies Retain •  Use in a wide range of ways Reuse •  Adapt, modify, and improve Revise •  Combine two or more Remix •  Share with others Redistribute The  5Rs  

What  If…   an  educator  revived  the  old  meaning?  

“I’m  teaching  an     open  online  course  this  fall.”   Which  “open”?     How  might  the  affordability   conversa2on  change?  

Genuine  Confusion   Open  =  free?     Open  =  free  +  5Rs  

Why  Does  It  MaGer?   Open  is  extremely  powerful     “Faux-­‐pen”  is  not  

Educa2on  is  Sharing   Faculty  with  students   Students  with  teachers  

Faculty  Share  With  Students   Knowledge  and  skills   Feedback  and  cri2cism     Encouragement  

Students  Share  With  Faculty   Ques2ons  in  Class   Assignments   Exams  

Successful  Educators   Share  most  compeltely   with  the  most  students  

2008  Professor  in  Southern  US   Claimed  (c)  of  his  class  lectures,     declared  student  notes  deriva2ve  works,   and  asserted  control  over  their  use  

“Demented  with  the  mania  of  owning  things”   Walt  Whitman  

If  there  is  no  sharing…   there  is  no  educa2on.  

Interlude:  A  Riddle   What  can  you  give  without  giving  it  away?  

Ideas  are  Magical  (Non-­‐rival)   Can  be  given  without  being  given  away  

“He  who  receives   ideas  from  me,   receives  instruc2on   himself  without   lessening  mine;  as  he   who  lights  his  taper   at  mine  receives  light   without  darkening   me.”   Thomas  Jefferson  

Physical  Expressions  Are  Not   To  give  a  book  you  must  give  it  away  

Expressions  Are  Different   To  give  a  book  you  must  give  it  away  

When  Expressions  Are  Digital   They  also  become  magical  

Unprecedented  Capacity   We  can  share  (and  educate)     as  never  before  

Except  We  Can’t   ©  regulates  copying,  adap2ng,   and  distribu2ng  those  copies  

Internet   Enables   What  to  do?   Copyright   Forbids  

Use  copyright  to  enable  sharing  

Features of copyright today • aGaches  any2me  “original  work  of  authorship   fixed  in  tangible  medium  of  expression”   • is  automa2c   • applies  to  published/unpublished  works   • lasts  a  long  2me  (typically  life  of  author  +  50   or  70  years)   • “bundle  of  rights”  =  reproduce,  deriva2ve   works,  distribute,  public  performance  

Features of copyright today • copyright  infringement  expensive  (in  U.S.   $750-­‐$150,000/work)   • public  domain  =  not  protected  by  copyright   • copyright  =  “all  rights  reserved”;  public   domain  =  “no  rights  reserved”   • you  have  to  ask  permission  

But how to ask permission?

How to support those that just want to share?

A simple, standardized, legally robust way to grant copyright permissions to creative works (and data).

“Lowers transaction costs”

CC’s legal infrastructure: (1) copyright licenses (2) public domain tools

(1) CC copyright licenses

How do CC licenses work? • built  on  tradi2onal  copyright  law   • works  within  exis2ng  system  by  allowing   movement  from  “all  rights  reserved”  to   “some  rights  reserved”   • gives  creators  a  choice  about  which  freedoms   to  grant  and  which  rights  to  keep   • minimizes  transac2on  costs  by  gran2ng  the   public  certain  permissions  beforehand  

Step 1: Choose Conditions" Attribution" ShareAlike" NonCommercial" NoDerivatives"

Step 2: Receive a License"

(2) CC public domain tools

CC0 Public Domain Dedication • read  “CC  Zero”   • universal  waiver,  permanently  surrenders   copyright  and  related  rights,  placing  the  work   as  nearly  as  possible  into  the  worldwide   public  domain  

Public Domain Mark • not  legally  opera2ve,  but  a  label  to  be  used   by  those  with  knowledge  that  a  work  is   already  in  the  public  domain   • useful  for  very  old  works  where  we  know  it  is   in  the  public  domain   • only  intended  for  use  with  works  in   worldwide  public  domain  

Over  500M  OER!     Over  half  a  billion  pieces  of  content   use  Crea2ve  Commons  licenses  

hGp://crea2vecommons.org/  

Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   Any  kind  of  teaching  materials  –   textbooks,  syllabi,  lesson  plans,   videos,  readings,  exams  

Open  Educa2onal  Resources?   1.  Free  and  unfeGered  access,  and   2.  Free  permission  to  engage  in  the     “5R  ac2vi2es”  

•  Make and own copies Retain •  Use in a wide range of ways Reuse •  Adapt, modify, and improve Revise •  Combine two or more Remix •  Share with others Redistribute The  5Rs  

Open  =  Use  a  CC  License   The  de  facto  way  to  make  something  OER  

Internet   Enables   OER   Allows   Leveraging  the  full  technical  capability   of  the  internet  

Decreasing  Cost     and  Increasing  Learning   Prac2cal  benefits  of  OER  

Tui2on  Is  Very  Poli2cal   Textbook  adop2ons  are  less  poli2cal  

Textbook  Costs   $1229  year  ($3131  tui2on)   60%  some2mes  skip   23%  regularly  skip  

“Displacing  Adop2ons”   Make  the  required  textbook  cost  $0  

Kaleidoscope  Open  Course  Ini2a2ve   NGLC  /  Gates  funding   8  community  colleges  /  OA  colleges  

Core  Ac2vi2es   Defining  and  aggrega2ng  outcomes   Finding  and  aligning  OERs  to  outcomes   Crea2ng  100%  OER  textbook  replacements  

X-­‐Ins2tu2onal  Collabora2on  Goals   Cover  10  GE  courses  and  4,000  students   Drop  required  textbook  cost  by  50%  

Phase  1  Results   Covered  11  GE  courses  and  9,000  students   Dropped  required  textbook  cost  to  $0   Increased  success  rate  by  ~  10%  

Developmental Math Results" Percentage passing with C or better 48.40% 60.18% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER n=2,842

Phase  2  Now  Underway   Cover  35  GE  courses   28  Ins2tu2onal  partners  

Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  

Open  Course  Frameworks   •  Start  from  learning  outcomes,   •  curated  collec2ons  of  OER,   •  openly  licensed  with  detailed  aGribu2on,   •  organized  in  a  way  that  looks  and  feels  like   an  online  course,   •  intended  to  be  modified  before  use,   •  compa2ble  with  our  con2nuous   improvement  analy2cs  service.  

Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  

Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  

Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  

Open  Course  Frameworks   Making  OER  Simple  to  Adopt  

“Textbook  Zero”     En2re  degree  program  based  on  OER   Up  to  30%  off  the  cost  to  graduate  

“Textbook  Zero”     Opened  Fall  2013  at  Tidewater  CC   Finalist  for  Bellwether  Innova2on  Award     Cost  $112k  to  launch   Each  graduate  saves  ~  $3000  

The  Daily  Divide   The  difference  between  OER  and  Fauxpen  

Analog  ⇒  Digital   Music,  Phones,  TV,  Newspapers,   Movies,  Journals,  &c.  

Tethered  ⇒  Mobile   Phones,  Internet  Access,   Employment    

Concealing  ⇒  Sharing   Photos,  Videos,  Journal  Entries  

Isolated  ⇒  Connected   People,  Content,  Systems  

Generic  ⇒  Personal   Cars,  Computers,  Mobile  Phones  

Consuming  ⇒  Crea2ng   Newspapers  /  Blogs     Movies  &  TV  /  YouTube  

Closed  ⇒  Open   Research  (Ar2cles,  Journals)   Data  (Government,  Weather,  GIS)     Content  (Open  Educa2onal  Resources)  

Then  vs  Now   Analog   ⇒   Digital   Tethered   ⇒   Mobile   Concealing   ⇒   Sharing   Isolated   ⇒   Connected   Generic   ⇒   Personal   Consuming   ⇒   Crea2ng   Closed   ⇒   Open  

Educa2on  vs  Everyday   Analog   ⇒   Digital   Tethered   ⇒   Mobile   Concealing   ⇒   Sharing   Isolated   ⇒   Connected   Generic   ⇒   Personal   Consuming   ⇒   Crea2ng   Closed   ⇒   Open  

“Daily  Divide”   (As  opposed  to  the  digital  divide)  

“Academic”   (This  is  where  the  common  usage  derives)  

“Academic”   (This  is  where  the  common  usage  derives)  

What  About  Online  Learning?  

What  About  Online  Learning?   Very  innova2ve  in  1994!  

Online  Learning   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  

What  About  MOOCs?  

MOOCs   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing(?)   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  

“You  may  not  take  any  Online   Course  offered  by  Coursera  or  use   any  Statement  of  Accomplishment   as  part  of  any  tui2on-­‐based  or  for-­‐ credit  cer2fica2on  or  program  for   any  college,  university,  or  other   academic  ins2tu2on  without  the   express  wriGen  permission  from   Coursera.”  

Open  is  Fundamental   Why?  

•  Make and own copies Retain •  Use in a wide range of ways Reuse •  Adapt, modify, and improve Revise •  Combine two or more Remix •  Share with others Redistribute The  5Rs  

Online  Learning   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  

Online  Learning   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea2ng   Closed   or   Open  

Connec2ng   It’s  “hard”  to  connect  to  something  if   you  don't  have  access  to  it  

Personalizing   It’s  “hard”  to  personalize  something   if  you  don't  have  permission  to  modify  it  

Crea2ng  and  Sharing   It’s  “hard”  to  make  and  share  things  when   you’re  constantly  worried  about  being  sued  

When  You  Can  Assume  “Open”   These  problems  disappear  

OER-­‐based  Courses   Analog   or   Digital   Tethered   or   Mobile   Concealing   or   Sharing   Isolated   or   Connected   Generic   or   Personal   Consuming   or   Crea:ng   Closed   or   Open  

Divide  is  Growing  Apart  -­‐  Fast   Moving  both  direc2ons  at  once  

Expensive  ⇒  Affordable   Music,  Movies,  TV  Shows  

Affordable  ⇒  Expensive   Textbooks  (+800%)  

Content  Affordability   Provider   Cost   Ne?lix  –  20,000  Movies  (and  TV)   $7.99  /  month   Hulu  Plus  –  45,000  TV  (and  Movies)   $7.99  /  month   Spo:fy  –  15M  Songs   $9.99  /  month       CourseSmart  –  1  Biology  Textbook   $20.25  /  month  

Content  Affordability   Provider   Cost   Ne?lix  –  20,000  Movies  (and  TV)   $7.99  /  month   Hulu  Plus  –  45,000  TV  (and  Movies)   $7.99  /  month   Spo:fy  –  15M  Songs   $9.99  /  month       CourseSmart  –  1  Biology  Textbook   $20.25  /  month   OpenStax  –  1  Open  Bio  Textbook   $0.00  /  month  

Impacts  of  Open  on:   Pedagogy   Assessment   Tenure  and  Promo2on   Research   Scholarship   Business  Model    

Organizing  and  Transforming  (0.85)   “Overt  or  covert  rearrangement  of   instruc2onal  materials  to  improve  learning.   (e.g.,  making  an  outline  before  wri2ng  a   paper)....  The  types  of  strategies  included  in   this  category  (such  as  summarizing  and   paraphrasing)  promote  a  more  ac3ve   approach  to  learning  tasks.”     Ha}e,  p.  190-­‐191   hGp://pm4id.org/    

But  Where  Are  All  These  OER?!?   Demo  2me!  

OER  +  Analy2cs   Con2nuous  improvement  

OER   Give  you  permission  to  make  changes     But  don’t  tell  you  what  to  change  

Analy2cs   Tell  you  what  to  change     But  don’t  give  you  permission  to  make  changes    

OER  +  Analy2cs   Con2nuous  improvement  

Faculty  Feedback   “I  wish  I  had  this  for  every  class  I   teach,  for  every  module!  The   feedback  and  recommenda2ons  are   posi2ve,  specific  and  are  changes  that   I  can  implement  quickly  with  minimal   effort  on  my  part.”  

Conclusion   (Finally!)  

Genuine  Open  Moves  Us  Forward   Increase  learning   Decrease  costs   Enable  new  pedagogies   Empower  faculty   Facilitate  con2nuous  improvement  

Fauxpen  Takes  Us  Backward   Free  but  not  open   None  of  the  benefits  of  open    

Lumen  Learning   It’s  all  open     Full  set  of  services  enabling  open  learning   (e.g.,  training,  licensing,  ID,  hos2ng,  support,  CI)    

Discussion   hGp://lumenlearning.com/   hGp://davidwiley.org/   @opencontent  

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