The pilgrim's progress

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Information about The pilgrim's progress

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: mrsabercrombie


The Pilgrim's Progress 02/27/14 1

The Pilgrim's Progress The Pilgrim's Progress is Bunyan's chief work and one of the most popular books in the English language. It is written in the old fashioned medieval form of allegory and dream and it is usually read and appreciated as a religious allegory. It tells of Christian's pilgrimage from his home to the Celestial City, and of his experiences and adventures on his journey. 02/27/14 2

Allegory • A story in which the characters, settings, and events stand for abstract or moral concepts. • Allegories have two meanings: literal and symbolic 02/27/14 3

The Pilgrim's Progress 02/27/14 4

Story The whole book begins with the author's dream, in which the author sees a man called Christian who starts a journey from home with a book, the Bible, in hand and a great burden, the weight of worldly cares and concerns, on back. By the guidance of the Bible, Christian wants to leave his hometown, the City of Destruction. His wife, children and neighbors all refuse to go with him except his friend Pliable. 02/27/14 5

Story But Pliable retreats after they meet the difficulties in Slough Despond. Christian alone goes on. Then he is overtaken by a neighbor, Faithful. They two continue the journey together through many adventures, including the great struggle with Apollyon, ruler of this world. Then they come to Vanity Fair where Faithful is tortured to death by the Judge Hate-Good. 02/27/14 6

Story And at last they reach the Celestial City and enter to enjoy eternal life. That ends the first part of the book. The second part describes the pilgrimage of Christian's wife, Christiana, her children and two neighbors. They also go through various adventures, but eventually reach their destination successfully. 02/27/14 7

The book The Pilgrim's Progress is a faithful panoramic reflection of England in the 17th century. It is strongly realistic. 02/27/14 8

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• Firstly, the characters in the book impress the reader like real persons. • Secondly, the places that Christian meets on the way are English scenes. • Thirdly, the book is written in the simple and lively prose style, and the conversations vividly repeat the language of his time. • Fourthly, the most significant aspect of the book is the satires which are centered on the ruling class. Some of Christian's unfortunate experiences are just the symbolic pictures of London at the time of Restoration. Vanity Fair is just London at Bunyan's time, where all things are bought and sold, including honours, titles, lives and others, and where cheating and roguery, murders and adultery are normal. 02/27/14 10

John Bunyan’s Statue 02/27/14 11

Excerpt Introduction: The following excerpt is from chapter 6, Book I, which is perhaps the best-known episode in the book. It contains a description of Vanity Fair and an account of the experience of Christian and his companion Faithful. Bunyan characteristically turns one of the most familiar institutions in contemporary England — annual fairs — into an allegory of universal spiritual significance. The vivid picture of Vanity Fair is a biting satire on the English society. 02/27/14 12

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• Then I [1] saw in my dream, that when they [2] were got [3] out of the wilderness, they presently saw a town before them, and the name of that town is Vanity; and at the town there is a fair kept, called Vanity Fair. It is kept all the year long; it beareth [4] the name of Vanity Fair, because the town where it is kept is lighter than vanity; and also because all that is there sold or that cometh thither is vanity. As is the saying of the wise, all that cometh is vanity. • Notes 1. I: the author himself 2. they: Christian and his friend Faithful 3. were got: had got 4. beareth: bears 02/27/14 14

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• This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of ancient standing; I will show you the original [5] of it.   Almost five thousand years agone [6], there were pilgrims walking to the Celestial City [7], as these two honest persons [8] are; and Beelzebub, Apollyon, and Legion [9], with their companions, perceiving by the path that the pilgrims made, that their way to the city lay through this town of Vanity, they [10] contrived here to set up a fair; a fair wherein should be sold all sorts of vanity, and that it should last all the year long: • 5. original: origin 6. agone: (archaic)ago 7. the Celestial City: Paradise 8. these two honest persons: Christian and Faithful 9. Beelzebub, Apollyon, and Legion: All are fellows of Satan. Legion: basic army unit of Roman 10. they: Beelzebub, Apollyon, and Legion 02/27/14 16

Beelzebub 02/27/14 17

02/27/14 Apollyon Legion 18

American Legion Riders 02/27/14 19

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• therefore at this fair are all such merchandise sold, as houses, lands, trades, places, honours, preferments [11], titles, countries, kingdoms, lusts, pleasures, and delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds [12], wives, husbands, children, masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious stones, and what not [13]. And, moreover, at this fair there is at all times to be seen juggling, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes [14], knaves, and rogues, and that of every kind. • 11. preferments: promotions 12. bawds: procuresses 13. and what not: and other things of similar kind 14. apes: mimics, imitators 02/27/14 21

“Vanity Fair is the city of Destruction in its gala dress, in its most seductive sensual allurements. It is this world in miniature, with its various temptations. It is Satan’s theme park and world of carnal dreams” - George Cheever 02/27/14 22

Medieval Fair 02/27/14 23

17th Century Market 02/27/14 24

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• Here are to be seen, too, and that for nothing [15], thefts, murders, adulteries, false swearers, and that of a booldred colour [16]. And as in other fairs of less moment [17], there are the several [18] rows [19] and streets, under their proper [20] names, where such wares are vended [21]; • 15. for nothing: free of charge 16. a blood-red colour: sth. very striking 17. monent: importance 18. several: different 19. rows: short streets 20. proper: own 21. vended: sold 02/27/14 26

• so here likewise you have the proper places, rows, streets (viz [22]. countries and kingdoms), where the wares of this fair are soonest [23] to be found. Here is the Britain Row, the French Row, the Italian Row, the Spanish Row, the German Row, where several sorts of vanities are to be sold. • 22. viz: the shortened form for “ videlicet ” in Latin, meaning “ namely ” 23. soonest: easiest 02/27/14 27

• This is truly a world fair with cultural diversity and unity of purpose. – Many distinctive national displays – Exotic cuisine and delicacies from all over are exibited to maximum appeal 02/27/14 28

• But, as in other fairs, some one commodity is as the chief of all the fair, so the ware of Rome and her merchandise [24] is greatly promoted [25] in this fair; only our English nation, with some others, have taken a dislike thereat [26]. • 24. the ware of Rome and her merchandise: the goods of Roman Catholic church and her trade, implying that within the Roman Catholic Church there was much corruption and that many things were bought and sold there 25. promoted: publicized in order to sell 26. only our English nation, with some others, have taken a dislike thereat: our English nation, with some others, have disapproved of the ware of Rome (referring to the separation of the Anglican Church from Roman Catholic church). thereat: at “ the ware of Rome and her merchandise ” 02/27/14 29

Roman Catholic Church 02/27/14 30

Roman Catholic Church 02/27/14 31

Roman Catholic Church 02/27/14 32

• Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just through this town where this lusty [27] fair is kept; and he that will go to the City, and yet not go through this town, must needs [28] go out of the world. The Prince of Princes [29] himself, when here [30], went through this town to his own country, and that upon a fair day too; yea [31], and as I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief lord of this fair, that invited him to buy of [32] his vanities; • 27. lusty: full of vitality, merry, cheerful 28. needs: necessarily 29. The Prince of Princes: Jesus Christ 30. when here: when he was alive 31. yea: (archaic) yes, moreover 32. of: some of 02/27/14 33

• The Vanity planning commission has gone to great lengths to ensure that transient pilgrims are compelled to experience the full force of the Fair’s bewitching display • All pilgrims must encounter Vanity Fair 02/27/14 34

• yea, would have made [33] him lord of the fair, would he but [34] have done him reverence as he went through the town. Yea, because he was such a person of honour, Beelzebub had him from street to street, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a little time, that he might, if possible, allure the Blessed One [35] to cheapen [36] and buy some of his vanities; • 33. would have made: The subject of “ it ” is the previous “ that. ” 34. would he but: if only he would 35. the Blessed One: Jesus Christ 36. cheapen: (archaic) buy 02/27/14 35

• but he had no mind to the merchandise, and therefore left the town without laying out [37] so much as one farthing [38] upon these vanities. This fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of long standing, and a very great fair. Now these pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through this fair. Well, so they did: but, behold, even [39] as they entered into the fair, all the people in the fair were moved [40], and the town itself as it were in a hubbub [41] about them; and that for several reasons: for• 37. laying out: spending, expending 38. farthing: former British coin, equal to 1/4 penny 39. even: just 40. moved: excited 41. in a hubbub: in a disturbance 02/27/14 36

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• First, the pilgrims were clothed with such kind of raiment [42] as was diverse from [43] the raiment of any that traded in that fair. The people therefore of the fair, made a great gazing upon them: some said they were fools, some they were bedlams [44], and some, they are outlandish men [45]. Secondly, and as they [46] wondered at their apparel, so they did likewise at their speech; for few could understand what they said. • 42. raiment: clothes 43. diverse from: different from 44. bedlams: madmen 45. outlandish men: foreigners 46. they: Christian and Faithful 02/27/14 38

• The pilgrims make no attempt to accommodate themselves to the worldly ways of Vanity Fair, even under the pretext of “communicating through their culture” 02/27/14 39

• They naturally spoke the language of Canaan [47], but they that kept the fair were the men of this world; so that, from one end of the fair to the other, they seemed barbarians [48] each to the other [49].    Thirdly, but [50] that which did not a little amuse [51] the merchandisers, was that these pilgrims set very light by [52] all their wares; they care not so much as to look upon them; • 47. Canaan: the Promised Land, ultimately conquered by the children of Israel and settled by them, hence the pilgrims speak the language of the Bible and of the true religion, “God’s wisdom in mastery” which no one in Vanity Fair understands 48. barbarians: foreigners. The Greeks and Romans designated all those who spoke a foreign tongue. 49. each to the other: the two pilgrims and the other people in the fair 50. Thirdly, but: But, thirdly 51. amuse: bewilder 52. set very light by: regard as valueless 02/27/14 40

Canaan 02/27/14 41

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• and if they [53] called upon them to buy, they [54] would put their fingers in their ears, and cry, Turn away mine [55] eyes from beholding vanity, and look upwards, signifying that their trade and traffic [56] was in heaven. One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriages [57] of the men [58], to say unto them, What will ye buy? But they, looking gravely upon him, answered, We buy the truth. • 53. they: the tradesmen 54. they: Christian and Faithful 55. mine: my 56. trade and traffic: dealings, business 57. carriages: bearing, posture 58. the men: Christian and Faithful 02/27/14 43

• At that there was an occasion taken to despise the men the more; some mocking, some taunting, some speaking reproachfully, and some calling upon others to smite them. At last things came to a hubbub and great stir in the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded. Now was word presently brought to the great one [59] of the fair, who quickly came down, and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take these men into examination [60], about whom the fair was almost overturned … • 59. the great one: “ the chief lord of this fair ” 60. examination: investigation 02/27/14 44

• (A trial is held, in which Faithful is accused by three witnesses, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank.) Then went the jury out, whose names were Mr. Blindman, Mr. No-good, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Liveloose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, and Mr. Implacable; who every one [61] gave in his private verdict against him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the Judge. And first, among themselves, Mr. Blind-man, the foreman [62], said, I see clearly that this man is a heretic. • 61. who every one: every one of whom 62. the foreman: the head of the jury 02/27/14 45

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• Then said Mr. No-good, Away with such a fellow from the earth. Ay, said Mr. Malice, for I hate the very looks of him. Then said Mr. Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I, said Mr. Live-loose, for he would always be condemning my way. Hang him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub [63], said Mr. High-mind. My heart riseth against him, said Mr. Enmity. He is a rogue, said Mr. Liar. Hanging is too good for him, said Mr. Cruelty. Let's despatch [64] him out of the way, said Mr. Hatelight. • 63. A sorry scrub: a wretched, dwarfish person, here referring to Faithful 64. despatch: dispatch, send away 02/27/14 47

• Then said Mr. Implacable, might I have all the world given me, I could not be reconciled to him; therefore, let us forthwith bring him in guilty of death. And so they did; therefore he was presently condemned to be had from the place where he was, to the place from whence [65] he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented.    They therefore brought him out to do with him according to their law; and, first, they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then they lanced his flesh with knives; after that, they stoned him with stones, then pricked him with their swords; and, last of all, they burned him to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful to his end. • 65. whence: where 02/27/14 48

• Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot and a couple of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his adversaries had despatched him) was taken up into it, and straightway was carried up through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the celestial gate. But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to prison. So he there remained for a space; but He that overrules all things, having the power of their rage in his own hand, so wrought it about, that Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way … 02/27/14 49

Assignment • Answer questions 5, 10, and 11 on page 424 • Complete the writing assignment on page 424 called The Jury is In 02/27/14 50

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