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the peninsula war

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Information about the peninsula war
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Published on October 10, 2007

Author: Gourmet

Source: authorstream.com

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THE PENINSULA WAR:  THE PENINSULA WAR 1808 - 1814 PENINSULA WAR BATTLE HONOURS:  PENINSULA WAR BATTLE HONOURS Pyrenees Nivelle Nive Orthes Toulouse Peninsula Corunna Roliça Vimeira Talavera Fuentes d’Onor Salamanca Vittoria PENINSULA WAR BATTLE HONOURS:  PENINSULA WAR BATTLE HONOURS Roliça Vimeiro Corunna Talavera Busaco Fuentes d’Onor Albuhera Ciudad Rodrigo Badajos Salamanca Vittoria Pyrenees Nive Orthes Toulouse Peninsula Slide5:  SPAIN GROUND THE PENINSULA WAR:  THE PENINSULA WAR 1804 - Spain and France join together under Napoleon against England. Napoleon decides that Spain was untrustworthy and pours troops into Northern Spain - ‘to conquer Portugal’. 1807 - Portugal invaded. Napoleon kidnaps the Spanish Monarchy and installs his brother Joseph as the new King of Spain! THE PENINSULA WAR:  Spain rises in rebellion but is no match for the French. 22 Jul 1808 - HMS Crocodile makes its way into the Port of Corunna, with Lt Gen Sir Arthur Wellesley on board. With him came 14,000 British troops. THE PENINSULA WAR Slide8:  SPAIN THE PENINSULA WAR:  The British landed a further force of 13,000 in Portugal on 1st Aug 1808. 16 Aug - 1st Action - Lt Bunbury (95th Rifles) was the first British casualty. 17 Aug - Battle of Roliça - 1st victory. THE PENINSULA WAR THE PENINSULA WAR:  The British Govt was worried about losing the war and many advocated retreat! The British were initially on the defensive due to superior French numbers. THE PENINSULA WAR Slide11:  Roliça Vimeiro Talavera Salamanca Lisbon 100 miles N THE PENINSULA WAR:  21 Aug - Battle of Vimeiro - 1st real major victory, which made Wellesley realise how to defeat the French on the Peninsula: British Line vs French Column Skilful selection of ground Efficient use of limited artillery resources. But - The Convention of Cintra incident led to his Court Martial. Sir John Moore takes command……. THE PENINSULA WAR THE ROAD TO CORUNNA:  THE ROAD TO CORUNNA Moore now had 32,000 men under command and began to advance into Spain. However, Napoleon had just made peace with Prussia, and chose to go to Spain with an additional 120,000 men. Having marched 400 miles in 6 weeks Moore found that the ‘battle was lost’ - The Spanish were not able to support the British. THE RETREAT TO CORUNNA:  24 Dec 1808 - Moore forced to retreat to save the Army: THE RETREAT TO CORUNNA Slide15:  Zamora Benavente Ponferrada Cambarros Lugo THE RETREAT TO CORUNNA:  24 Dec 1808 - Moore forced to retreat to save the Army: The British retreat to Corunna was one of the most harrowing episodes of the war - British discipline in many cases vanished amid the snows of the bleak Galician mountains. THE RETREAT TO CORUNNA THE RETREAT TO CORUNNA:  THE RETREAT TO CORUNNA The Rearguard continually prevented the French from engaging the main body. THE BATTLE OF CORUNNA:  16-18 Jan 1809 - The Battle was a victory for the British, which enabled the Army to embark in relative safety Cost Sir John Moore his life THE BATTLE OF CORUNNA THE PENINSULA WAR:  22 Apr 1809 - Wellesley returns 12 May - Crosses the River Douro and drives the French from Oporto. THE PENINSULA WAR THE PENINSULA WAR:  By end of May 1809 - The Army of Portugal (French) was driven out. British move South to link up with the Spanish……a logistical nightmare. The Army reaches TALEVERA on 22 Jul 1809. Plan to unite with the Spanish and crush the French. THE PENINSULA WAR Slide21:  Redoubt River TAGUS Portina Stream Medellin Hill Cascajal Hill 0 1 mile xxxx xx xx xx TALAVERA HILL Each side lost over 300 men that evening Slide22:  Redoubt River TAGUS Portina Stream Medellin Hill Cascajal Hill 0 1 mile xxxx xx xx TALAVERA HILL After 2 hours of fighting, all three attacks fail. A truce is called mid-morning and both Armies drink in the stream dividing them. The French have a council of war. 11am - the French drums beat… the soldiers separate. Slide23:  Redoubt River TAGUS Portina Stream Medellin Hill Cascajal Hill 0 1 mile xxxx xx xx TALAVERA HILL 4,500 French and 80 cannon attack, but are destroyed in the 1st attack. The 2nd attack was doomed to fail... THE PENINSULA WAR:  27 - 28 July - The Battle of TALEVERA Most hard fought victory (5,000 casualties) Became Lord Wellington THE PENINSULA WAR THE PENINSULA WAR:  30 Jul - Alarming news of a new French advance….The whole French Army! Marshall Masséna moves against the British who are forced to begin a withdraw to Portugal. British construct 3 lines of fortifications, with a 4th close to Lisbon 30 miles wide. Utilised natural and man-made obstacles Scorched earth policy THE PENINSULA WAR THE PENINSULA WAR:  The French invaded in Sept with the aim to capture Lisbon and drive Wellington into the sea. 27 Sept - Battle of Busaco Ridge. THE PENINSULA WAR Slide27:  SPAIN PORTUGAL MAJOR CITIES Busaco Slide28:  San Antonio de Cantaro Moura Sula Palheiros Mortagoa River MONDEGO 0 2 miles xxx xxx xxx CRAUFORD PACK HILL LEITH PICTON NEY REYNIER JUNOT After an hour of heavy fighting and climbing the French reach the top. A counter attack eventually forces the exhausted French down. 6am - 4 French Battalions lead 2 attacks on an axis of San Antonio. In all 14,000 attack the British centre. The reverse slope protected the British, who’s volleys of fire tore into the French as they reached the summit. 7am - The 3rd attack begins and attacks on the same axis. Again they reach the top of the ridge…. THE PENINSULA WAR:  28 Sept - Despite a great victory, the French are able to outflank Wellington to the North. Wellington withdraws to ‘The Lines of Torres Vedras. THE PENINSULA WAR Slide30:  SPAIN PORTUGAL Badajoz Ciudad Rodrigo Almeida Slide31:  Vimeiro Torres Vedras LISBON Rolica THE LINES OF TORRES VEDRAS :  THE LINES OF TORRES VEDRAS Mobile British Infantry Portuguese defend the fortifications The fortifications were a complete surprise to the French French settle down to wait (not sure what for?) The winter and starvation caused 500 French casualties/week 3 Apr 1811 - French finally driven out following the Battle of Sabugal. THE PENINSULA WAR:  1811-12 - Frontier fighting 5 May 1811 - British defeat French at Fuentes de Oñoro as Masséna attempts to relieve a beleaguered garrison at Almeida The French hold 3 out of 4 fortresses: THE PENINSULA WAR Slide34:  SPAIN PORTUGAL Slide35:  Badajoz Ciudad Rodrigo SPAIN PORTUGAL Almeida Badajos 6-7 Apr Stormed The assault against Ciudad Rodrigo was the first fortress in Europe to be captured by it being stormed. However the attack resulted in the death of Gen Robert Craufurd - Sir John Moore’s replacement. THE PENINSULA WAR:  Wellington lays plans for the campaign that would see the capture of Madrid by the Summer of 1812. He was to be proved correct…. But he was to have to fight one of the most decisive battles of his career first…. The Battle of Salamanca. THE PENINSULA WAR THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA:  THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA It was now safe for Wellington to invade Spain………….Why? Napoleon decides to invade Russia Napoleon orders Marshall Suchet to attack Valencia. To do this he had to leave the Portuguese frontier Slide38:  SPAIN Slide39:  SPAIN PORTUGAL DISPOSITIONS OF THE ARMIES IN 1812 HILL WELLINGTON SPANISH SOULT MARMONT CAFFARELLI JOSEPH SUCHET SPANISH Slide40:  SPAIN PORTUGAL THE PLAN OF BATTLE HILL WELLINGTON SPANISH SOULT MARMONT CAFFARELLI JOSEPH SUCHET SPANISH Moving South suited the Spanish, but would have forced SOULT to move North and probably link with Suchet or MARMONT. By moving East, Wellington would seriously threaten French lines of communication. The French were very static in terms of deployment. If they manouvered, the Spanish would fill the gaps left behind them. As long as they stayed ‘static’ Wellington could destroy them one by one. Slide41:  SPAIN PORTUGAL PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS BY WELLINGTON HILL WELLINGTON SPANISH SOULT MARMONT CAFFARELLI JOSEPH SUCHET SPANISH 2. Planned to sever links between MARMONT and SOULT, South of the River TAGUS Almaraz Slide42:  SPAIN PORTUGAL PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS BY WELLINGTON HILL WELLINGTON SPANISH SOULT MARMONT CAFFARELLI JOSEPH SUCHET SPANISH 2. Planned to sever links between MARMONT and SOULT, South of the River TAGUS Almaraz MARMONT SOULT The Spanish people mounted numerous guerilla operations to hamper the French, as well as provide vital intelligence! Slide43:  SPAIN PORTUGAL THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA HILL WELLINGTON SPANISH SOULT MARMONT CAFFARELLI JOSEPH SUCHET SPANISH Almaraz MARMONT SOULT SALAMANCA:  SALAMANCA Fort San Gaetano Fort La Merced River TORMES N 200m 17 Jun - Siege begins, but the 6th Div under Gen CLINTON has difficulties, due to inexperience. Fort San Vicente Wellington leaves the 6th Div and moves the rest of the Army North on 19 Jun Slide45:  Moriscos WELLINGTON, outnumbering MARMONT, hopes that the French will follow up and attack. Despite being prepared for them, the French understandably do nothing except recce. SALAMANCA:  SALAMANCA Fort San Gaetano Fort La Merced River TORMES N 200m Fort San Vicente 23 Jun - 350 men attack San Gaetano 20 ladders were carried - only 2 planted at a cost of 120 offrs and men - incl Gen Bowes, who insisted on attacking with the troops. 26 Jun - Fresh supplies of ammo arrive Late 27 Jun - San Vicente is in flames following attack by ‘hot shot’. San Gaetano was breached. All forts were captured by the end of the day. MARMONT abandons his plans, and as a result delays his destruction by a few weeks Dawn 27 Jun - The Governor of San Vicente signals that he can hold out for a further 3 days. MARMONT plans to move South with 40,000 men to relieve the forts. Slide47:  SPAIN PORTUGAL Slide48:  Canizal Slide49:  18 Jul Wellington rides forward to see for himself the French advance 18 Jul The combat at Castrillo results in WELLINGTON finding himself drawing his sword as French cavalry gets amongst his Staff. The British Cavalry eventually beat back the French. Slide50:  Cabrerizos Aldea Lengua Santa Marta Calvarrasa de Abajo Huerta Calvarrasa de Arriba Nuestra Senhora de la Pena Miranda de Azan Las Torres Los Arapiles Aldea Tejada Carbajosa Lesser Arapil Ford Ford Ford Ford Tormes Ford The British posn stretched from Santa Marta to the Lesser Arapil The French were deployed from the Ridge facing the British at Calvarisa de Arriba Slide51:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden 3rd Div hidden Foy , Bonnet and Ferey From the French position, MARMONT could not see the British main dispositions as a result of the hills in front of him. xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx Carbajosa 6 4th Div Slide52:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden 3rd Div hidden Foy, Bonnet and Ferey xx xx Carbajosa MARMONT could only see one British division (the Rear Guard) and the baggage train in the distance. To MARAMONT the British were in full retreat! Slide53:  Cabrerizos Aldea Lengua Santa Marta Calvarrasa de Abajo Huerta Calvarrasa de Arriba Nuestra Senhora de la Pena Miranda de Azan Las Torres Los Arapiles Aldea Tejada Carbajosa Lesser Arapil Greater Arapil Ford Ford Ford Ford Tormes Ford Foy Bonnet and Ferey Boyer MARMONT at noon climbs up the Greater Arapil and sees the reality - the British were not retreating, but ready to give battle. He realises that he had made a mistake, and that his army was now spread over a distance of 6 miles! Slide54:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden 3rd Div hidden Foy, Bonnet and Ferey xx Carbajosa French Advance Wellington, while having his lunch, is informed of the French vulnerability at his view point East of Los Arapiles. He seizes the opportunity to strike. Slide55:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden Foy, xx Carbajosa French Advance Slide56:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden Foy, xx Carbajosa French Advance Both Le Marchant and Thomieres were killed while 1/4 of the Hy Bde fall. Slide57:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden Foy, xx Carbajosa CLAUSEL was now in a position to change the course of the battle and go for victory, by launching his Div into the gap that developed in the British line French rout Slide58:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden Foy, xx Carbajosa French rout Ferey As the 6th Div continues the pursuit of CLAUSEL, they come across FEREYs line, which stops them. FEREY had formed up his 7 Bns in a line with a square at each end. When the 6th Div was approx 200 yards of the French, they line opened fire - scores of red-coated British Infantrymen fell. Slide59:  1st & Lt Divs 5th, 6th & 7th Divs hidden Foy, xx Carbajosa French rout Ferey THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA:  THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA SALAMANCA was a great victory. WELLINGTON’s army suffered 5,214 casualties, including 700 dead. 52nd - 2 casualties 53rd - 143 casualties 60th - 36 casualties 68th - 1 casualty The French lost well over 14,000 men including MARMONT, BONNET and CLAUSEL (each had commanded the French Army at some stage in the day!). (which sat rather nicely together at Wellington’s dinner on the evening of 22 Jul 1812. THE AFTERMATH OF SALAMANCA:  THE AFTERMATH OF SALAMANCA 12 Aug 1812 - WELLINGTON enters MADRID. THE AFTERMATH OF SALAMANCA:  THE AFTERMATH OF SALAMANCA What started as a good year: Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz The daring raid on ALMARAZ Victory at SALAMANCA It ended in disaster! The Retreat from BURGOS Oct/Nov 1812. THE DISASTER AT BURGOS:  THE DISASTER AT BURGOS Undertook the siege short of siege equipment. He only had 3 heavy guns with him and none of his ‘storming’ divisions. Used the 1st Div who were not up to the job. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA The disaster at Burgos was followed by an appalling retreat to Ciudad Rodrigo. The Winter of 1812-13 was used by Wellington to contemplate strategy and reinforce his Army - now 80,000 strong. The French assumed that any thrust by Wellington would be through central Spain. Slide67:  Ciudad Rodrigo THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA This strategy was designed to force the French to abandon their defences as they became outflanked - thus avoiding battle. Wellington could therefore switch is supply bases from Portugal to Northern Spain. As Wellington crossed the border into Spain he said….. “ farewell Portugal, for I shall never see you again”. He was right. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  The speed of advance out flanked the French who, as Wellington had hoped, were forced to abandon their defences as their flanks were turned. On 13 Jun 1813 Burgos was abandoned and blown up by the departing garrison. The French Army was only a short distance away at Vittoria……. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA Slide71:  WELLINGTON 79,000 JOSEPH BONAPARTE 68,000 REILLE Gazan D’ERLON Nanclares WELLINGTONS PLAN Slide72:  2 DIV (HILL) LT DIV (ALTEN) 4 DIV (COLE) 3 DIV (PICTON) 7 DIV (DALHOUISE) REILLE Gazan D’ERLON 21st June 1813 Wellington had delegated authority to his Generals to fight according to the circumstances they faced. Slide73:  WELLINGTON 79,000 2 DIV (HILL) JOSEPH BONAPARTE 68,000 REILLE Gazan D’ERLON 1 DIV (HOWARD) 5 DIV (OSWALD) Nanclares Picton was faced by two French divisions supported by Artillery. The 1st and 2nd Bns 95th Rifles, under Kempt, attacked the guns in their flank and forced them to withdraw. Slide74:  From Bilbao & Orduna River Bayas River Zadorra Murguia Anda Zuazo Tres Puentas Mendoza Villodas Margarita Hermandad Armentia Abechuco Gamara Mayor Gamara Menor Benonio Gomecha Arinez VITTORIA To Pampeluna Subijana de Morillos Heights of Morillos Heights of Puebla Subijana de Alava Ariaga 2 DIV (HILL) 4 DIV (COLE) 3 DIV (PICTON) 7 DIV (DALHOUISE) REILLE Gazan D’ERLON 1 DIV (HOWARD) 5 DIV (OSWALD) LT DIV (ALTEN) REILLE However, once Margarita had fallen, their right flank was exposed THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  Gazan realised that he was in danger of being cut off. Joseph was left with little choice but to order a general retreat. Rather than retreat…the French Army disintegrated! From Joseph downward…it was every man for himself. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  The French abandoned virtually all their equipment, arms and ammunition. Only Reille’s Corps in the north were able to manage some sort of order before they too were swept away. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  Panic swept through Vittoria which was full of French soldiers and their camp followers. As the French Army fled, many of their followers were left to the mercy of the British. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  The French abandoned their entire baggage train as well as: 415 caissons 151 of their 153 guns 100 wagons A fantastic amount of treasure! THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  Never in the history of warfare had such an immense amount of booty been capture by an opposing force - even Madame Gazan! Ironically the treasure saved what was left of Joseph’s Army. While the British stopped to fill their pockets with gold…..the French made good their escape towards Pamplona. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  King Joseph himself narrowly avoided capture. When his carriage was caught in a jam outside Vittoria, he took to his horse. As he got out of the carriage on one side, Col Wyndham of the 10th Hussars fired his pistol through the other. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  The Allies suffered 5,100 casualties during the battle. 52nd suffered 23 casualties. 5/60th suffered 51 casualties. 68th suffered 24 killed, 100 wounded. 95th lost 79 men. The French casualties are estimated as 8,000. Wellington was created Field Marshall. THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA:  At the time of the Battle, Napoleon was negotiating a treaty with Austria and Prussia. Unable to suppress the news of the defeat, the treaty was repudiated and hostilities resumed. Vittoria was therefore one of the most decisive and important battles of the era. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE BATTLE OF VITTORIA THE END OF THE WAR:  THE END OF THE WAR 7 Oct 1813 - WELLINGTON crosses into France. THE END OF THE WAR:  THE END OF THE WAR The French Army was stretched on too many fronts – fighting the mass of Allied nations. 6 Apr 1814 - Napoleon abdicates 30 Apr 1814 - Treaty of Paris brought an end to the War Slide86:  Thus ended the war…. The great Peninsula army was dismantled and divided. Yet there was still one more great battle for some of Wellington’s men, namely WATERLOO. But the army that fought there was a pale shadow of that which had triumphed in the Peninsula and which had swept Marmont’s army from the field of SALAMANCA…... Over the hills and far away

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