Published on February 16, 2014
NEF Upper-Intermediate 3A THE PASSIVE
THE PASSIVE: USAGE You can often say things in two ways, in the active or the passive. Picasso painted Gernika (active) Gernika was painted by Picasso (passive)
THE PASSIVE: USAGE In the active sentence, the focus is on the person (Picasso) In the passive, the focus is on the painting (Gernika) The passive is often used when you don’t know or it is not important who does or did the action My cart was stolen last night when I was sleeping
THE PASSIVE If you want to say who did the action (the agent) use ‘by’ The road has been blocked by the police Generally, the agent is not mentioned
THE PASSIVE: FORM To form the passive: be + past participle Present simple A lot of films are shot on location Present continuous My car is being repaired today Past simple Jim was arrested last month Past Continuous She died when the film was being made Present Perfect My car has been stolen
THE PASSIVE: FORM To form the passive: be + past participle Past Perfect Future (will/going to) Infinitive with to We saw that the window had been broken The prisoner will be released next month The verdict is going to be given tomorrow People used to be imprisoned for stealing bread Infinitive without to You can be fined for double-parking Gerund He paid a fine to avoid being sent to jail
THE PASSIVE: IT IS SAID THAT… HE IS THOUGHT TO This is a formal structure, used especially in news reports and TV with the verbs know, tell, understand, report, expect, say and think It makes the information sound more impersonal It is said that the victim was in a relationship with the murderer
THE PASSIVE: IT IS SAID THAT… HE IS THOUGHT TO You can use it is said, believed, etc + that + clause It is believed that the burglars broke in through the kitchen window You can use the subject of the clause (he, the man, the murderer …) + is said, believed, etc + to + infinitive or perfect infinitive The burglar is thought to be an old acquaintance of the victim He is known to have broken into several houses before
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This paper shows that some individuals with Down syndrome are capable of producing, imitating (repeating) and comprehending passive sentences, even though ...
Morphology and passive response properties for the complex and the reduced cell model. (a) The detailed reconstruction of a layer 5 pyramidal neuron ...
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