Published on March 11, 2014
THE PARTS OF SPEECH The eight parts of speech: verbs, nouns, pronouns, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. INSTITUTO LAURENS, A.C UNIDAD INSURGENTES LICENCIATURA EN ED. BILINGÜE
Adjective A word imputing a characteristic to a noun or pronoun. It’s a content word. Possessive adjectives My, your, his, her, its, our, their Her eyes were really beautiful. Demonstrative adjectives This, that, these, those If I hear that parrot again, I’ll call the RSPCA. Descriptive adjectives New, red, tall, deep, honest, stormy My new red is parked in the driveway.
Adverb: is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence, or any other word, or phrase. Classification of adverbs: interrogative and prepositional Adverbs are content words. Examples: slowly, often, here, quickly, lightly, beautifully. The fan works slowly
Pronoun is a word or form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. Classification of pronouns: interrogative, objective, personal, possessive, prepositional and reflexive. Examples: I, mine, my, your, him, it`s, she. This cellphone is mine. Pronouns are fuction words.
Is a word to used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Types of nouns: Common Nouns Proper Nouns Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns Non - Countable Nouns Countable Nouns Collective Nouns
Abstract Nouns: Things you cannot see or touch. Collective Nouns: To describe groups. Proper Nouns: Represents the name of a specific person, place or thing. The name of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, religions,etc. Concrete Nouns: Things you can see or touch.
Noun – countable Nouns: (mass nouns) Things you cannot count. Gender specific Nouns: Words wich are definitely male or female. Verbal Nouns: Nouns that represent actions. Compound nouns: Two or more nouns combined to form a single noun.
Abstract Nouns Examples: Bravery. Joy. Charity. Courage. Depression. Care. Destiny. Dislike. Emotion. Euphoria. Feeling. Fortune. Need. Opinion. Pleasure. Power. Sadness. Weakness. Desire.
team. chair. cabinet. school. regiment. board. group. class. cast. family. band. company. crowd. faculty. navy. staff. audience. Collective Nouns Examples:
Proper Nouns Examples: Barack Obama. (US President) Boston. (City) Buddhism. (Name of a religion) Campbell’s soup. (product) David. (person’s name) Declaration of Independence (oficial document) Detroit Tigers. (baseball team) Eggo Waffles. (product) Honda Accord. (product) Maryland. (state) New York Times. (newspaper) Queen Elizabet. (title and name of person) Snoopy. (cartoon character) Forever 21. (store) Columbia. (school)
Tree. Cloud. Flowers. Rain. Cookies. Panther. Doughnut. Elevator. Onion. Analyst. Wound. Haystack. Cat. Dog. Table. Concrete Nouns Examples:
Food. Music. Tea. Sugar. Water. Rice. Air. Love. Beauty. Garlic. History. Stuff. Noun – countable Nouns Examples:
Vixen. Actress. Actor. Boy. Sister. Duke. Man. Women. Bear. Elephant. Dancers. Babies. Student. Doctor. Teacher. Bag. Pen. Gender specific Nouns Examples:
Running. Guessing. Cooking. Traveling. Walking. Talking. Watching. Drinking. Writing. Verbal Nouns Examples:
Court – martial. Pick pocket. Water bottle. Something. Keyboard. Supermarket. Weekend. Six pack. Black board. Washing machine. Haircut. Mother-in-law. Football. Bus stop. Fire-flies. Full moon. Software. Swimming pool. Compound Nouns Examples:
VERBS Words used to describe an action. Finite Verbs Infinite Verbs Helping Verbs
FINITE VERBS •I baked some cookies. Transitive verbs •I laughed. Intransitive verbs •Am, feel, keep, etc. Linking verbs
INFINITIVE VERBS • To beInfinitives • Admit= he admitted..Gerunds • Present= I have • Past= I had been • Perfect= Having finished Participles
HELPING VERBS •Be, am, is, etc. Primary auxiliaries •You should study. Modal auxiliaries
INTERJECTIONS: Is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion you usually follow and interjection with and exclamation mark: EXAMPLES: OUCH!!! OH NOOO.. HEEY..! , EH? , GOOD LORD WOOW!! I WON THE LOTTERY!!!!!
ARTICLE : Is a word that is used with a noun to indicate the tarpe of reference being made by noun. EXAMPLES : AN , A , ON , THE I need a glass of water The younger member I traveled on the sea
Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions Conjunctive Adverbs Subordinating Conjunctions Join equals to one another: for, and, but, or, yet, so. These pairs of conjunctions require equal structures after each one. Either … or Neither … or Both … and Not only … but also These conjunctions join independent clauses together. After all, also, as a result, indeed , in fact, in other words, instead, like wise, besides, consequently, finally, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, for example, furthermore, hence, on the contrary, on the other hand, other wise, still, therefore, however, in edition, incidentally . Also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent upon the other. After, although, as, as for as, as soon as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, how, if, in case, in order, insofar, in that, no matter how, now that.
English Usage Example •on •days of the week •on Monday •in •months / seasons •time of day •year •after a certain period of time (when?) •in August / in winter •in the morning •in 2006 •in an hour •at •for night •for weekend •a certain point of time (when?) •at night •at the weekend •at half past nine •since •from a certain point of time (past till now) •since 1980 •for •over a certain period of time (past till now) •for 2 years •ago •a certain time in the past •2 years ago •before •earlier than a certain point of time •before 2004 •to •telling the time •ten to six (5:50) •past •telling the time •ten past six (6:10) •to / till / until •marking the beginning and end of a period of time •from Monday to/till Friday •till / until •in the sense of how long something is going to last •He is on holiday until Friday. •by •in the sense of at the latest •up to a certain time •I will be back by 6 o’clock. •By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages. Time
English Usage Example •in •room, building, street, town, country •book, paper etc. •car, taxi •picture, world •in the kitchen, in London •in the book •in the car, in a taxi •in the picture, in the world •at •meaning next to, by an object •for table •for events •place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work) •at the door, at the station •at the table •at a concert, at the party •at the cinema, at school, at work •on •attached •for a place with a river •being on a surface •for a certain side (left, right) •for a floor in a house •for public transport •for television, radio •the picture on the wall •London lies on the Thames. •on the table •on the left •on the first floor •on the bus, on a plane •on TV, on the radio •by, next to, beside •left or right of somebody or something •Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. •under •on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else •the bag is under the table •below •lower than something else but above ground •the fish are below the surface Place
•over •covered by something else •meaning more than •getting to the other side (also across) •overcoming an obstacle •put a jacket over your shirt •over 16 years of age •walk over the bridge •climb over the wall •above •higher than something else, but not directly over it •a path above the lake •across •getting to the other side (also over) •getting to the other side •walk across the bridge •swim across the lake •through •something with limits on top, bottom and the sides •drive through the tunnel •to •movement to person or building •movement to a place or country •for bed •go to the cinema •go to London / Ireland •go to bed •into •enter a room / a building •go into the kitchen / the house •towards •movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it) •go 5 steps towards the house •onto •movement to the top of something •jump onto the table •from •in the sense of where from •a flower from the garden Place
English Usage Example •from •who gave it •a present from Jane •of •who/what does it belong to •what does it show •a page of the book •the picture of a palace •by •who made it •a book by Mark Twain •on •walking or riding on horseback •entering a public transport vehicle •on foot, on horseback •get on the bus •in •entering a car / Taxi •get in the car •off •leaving a public transport vehicle •get off the train •out of •leaving a car / Taxi •get out of the taxi •by •rise or fall of something •travelling (other than walking or horseriding) •prices have risen by 10 percent •by car, by bus •at •for age •she learned Russian at 45 •about •for topics, meaning what about •we were talking about you Other important Prepositions
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