The Other 1%

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Information about The Other 1%
Science-Technology

Published on February 20, 2011

Author: aSGuest87102

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: John O’Donoghue University College Cork The Other 1% Slide 2: Platinum A heavy, grayish-white, highly malleable and ductile metallic element platinum is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust and has an average abundance of approximately 0.005 mg/kg - [plat-n-uhm, plat-nuhm] noun Slide 3: Platinum 239 tonnes are produced every year. 54% for Catalytic Converters in Cars etc 21% is used for Jewellery 14% is used in spark plugs, turbines, oxygen sensors etc 10% is used for Electronics and chemical catalysts - [plat-n-uhm, plat-nuhm] noun Slide 4: Platinum The other 1%....... - [plat-n-uhm, plat-nuhm] noun Slide 5: – [kan-ser] noun 1. a. a malignant and invasive growth or tumor, especially one originating in epithelium, tending to recur after excision and to metastasize to other sites. b. any disease characterized by such growths. 2. Any evil condition or thing that spreads destructively; blight. Cancer Slide 6: – [che·mo·ther·a·py] noun The treatment of cancer using specific chemical agents or drugs that are selectively destructive to malignant cells and tissues. The treatment of disease using chemical agents or drugs that are selectively toxic to the causative agent of the disease, such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism. Chemotherapy Slide 7: Chemotherapy Cancer Chemotherapeutic drugs can mop up Cancer slowly The same way Pacman below mops up the dots. In Other Words… But! Some Cancers are resistant to Chemotherapy and can de-activate the drug like the pink ghost above. Slide 9: Platinum based Anti - Cancer Drugs Cisplatin: Discovered in 1965 by B. Rosenberg. Approved for clinical use by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1978, it revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. Cisplatin – a “square planer” platinum complex Platinum metal centre Chloride Chloride Amine (NH3) Amine (NH3) Slide 10: Platinum based Anti - Cancer Drugs There are currently two platinum-based compounds that are marketed and clinically used worldwide as anti-tumor drugs: cisplatin and carboplatin. Platinum-based compounds are among the most active chemotherapeutic agents available. They are effective against a multitude of cancers. However, their clinical usage is hindered by toxic side effects, and by the emergence of drug resistance. Slide 11: How do they work? Cisplatin Cancer Cell Membrane Most Cisplatin molecules enter the Cell through “Active Transport”. Some enter through “Passive Diffusion” It is attracted inside the cell due to the lower Chloride ion concentration inside the cell. Slide 12: How do they work? Slide 13: How do they work? Inside the Cell Cisplatin loses its 2 chlorides so it can coordinate to Guanine Bases on two strands of a DNA molecule. Slide 14: Inside the Cell Along with the HMG Domain Protein it “bends the DNA”. This prevents the Cell from replicating and therefore the Cell dies. How do they work? Slide 15: Current Research? Side Effects of Cisplatin Include: Nausea and vomiting Extreme fatigue Neurotoxicity - causes damage to the nerves Nephrotoxicity - causes damage to the kidneys Why? Tumors are a collection of Abnormal Human Cells So Cisplatin will not differentiate between them and normal cells Therefore attacking both. And! Drug Resistance: Slide 16: Current Research? Carboplatin is a “2nd Generation Platinum Drug”: Introduced in 1980 as an alternative to Cisplatin Less Nausea and vomiting Elimination of Nephrotoxicity - causes damage to the kidneys But still some side-effects such as bone marrow decreases It still has amine (NH3) groups. Which is the same as Cisplatin Oxygen Oxygen But it has no chloride groups. An Oxygen based ring system is present instead Platinum Slide 17: Current Research? Platinum Iminophosphines and Phosphinoamides: On-going research in UCC attempts to create new more stable platinum complexes. Results thus far have been promising with over 10 new complexes identified. Reactions of these new platinum based complexes with bio-molecules have also been promising. It still has amine (NH3) groups. Which is the same as Cisplatin Oxygen Oxygen But it has no chloride groups. An Oxygen based ring system is present instead Platinum Platinum The overall Structure is much bigger The presence of Phosphorus ensures it is more stable. Slide 18: So Can we Cure Cancer? In Pacman, every dot is different. In the same way every Cancer is different. Platinum based drugs are particularly good at some cancers but not others. Some day we might find the white dot and turn all those Ghosts Blue.

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