The Obama Administration's Africa Doctrine

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Information about The Obama Administration's Africa Doctrine
News & Politics

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: jjallohghatt

Source: slideshare.net

Description

It took 5 years for the Obama Administration to lay out its plans and policy towards developing African nations and settled on a doctrine based on energy support and assisting Sub Saharan nations ready and prepare themselves to be global trade partners and leaders in wind, clean and other alternative forms of energy. This eBook provides a summary of the Obama Administration's Africa doctrine and offers a detailed listing of the various agencies and organizations that have been tasked to manage different aspects of the policy and doctrine.

By Jeneba Jalloh Ghatt Africa Doctrine A Plan for Investment, Trade, Alternative Energy Source Experimentation and African Youth Leadership Training THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION

2 Published in 2013 ISBN: 978-1-4675-9584-1 Copyright 2013 by Jeneba Jalloh Ghatt Visit: www.jenebaspaks.com First published in the United States of America Acknowledgements Thank you to my supportive husband, Dave, for his guidance and to Kevin Lewis, Director of African American Media, White House, for ensuring that independent publishers of the Black press and who educate African and African American audiences are continually in the loop along with general and main stream press that cover the White House. All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

3 In the 19th Century, President James Monroe established a policy announcing that the United States would not interfere or intervene with European colonies during a time when many were declaring their independence from their colonizers. That strategy became known as the Monroe Doctrine and since then any general presidential policy as it relates to interrelation with sovereign nations could be interpreted as that doctrine. In 2013, during a weeklong visit to Africa, United States President Barack Obama, a son of Africa himself, laid out the US course of action for interacting and working with sub Saharan African nations. In this digest guide, readers learn what that policy, The Africa Doctrine, is. As other nations fastidiously invest in Africa, much attention and expectations that were hurled upon President Barack Obama given his direct and immediate lineage to and connection to Africa via his father. Many in sub Saharan Africa had high hoped for President Barack Obama, whose father was born in Kenya, lived most of his life and died there. They anticipated that much attention would be paid to their interest and needs. It would not be immediately as they hoped. The man with the unique and unequivocally African name dedicated most of his first term in office focused on reviving the downturn economy he inherited from his predecessor and ushering in a massive comprehensive healthcare system. Not until the start of his second term would President Obama be able to give some real thought into Africa and set up a doctrine and policy for US Africa relations. He would have to separate himself from his predecessors whose respective policies focused on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, clean water and other initiatives. President Obama did so in a three prong approach that involved a) encouraging the development ofanalternativeenergypolicyacrossthecontinent;b)promotingtradebypushingforanupgrade in cross-continent and international standards, more democracy and less corruption; and c) mentoring and indoctrinating young African leaders to abandon the ways of the sometimes corrupt regimes that cycled in and out of power in various sub Saharan African nations. Those administrations are usually held by family dynasties more concerned with padding their pockets as they auctioned off their nations natural resources to the highest-bidding multinational corporations while overseeing nations of mostly poor constituents. In this concise book, The Obama Administration: Africa Doctrine, attorney, entrepreneur and columnist Jeneba Jalloh Ghatt uses her experience covering the White House, Congress and utility policy for several online political websites, and her background as an editor, author and journalist, to deliver a crisp synopsis of the guiding principles the Obama Administration has established and created for dealing with the massive continent of one billion inhabitants. INTRO

4 In this abridged guide readers can expect to: Know what the priorities and goals are for the United States as they relate to dealing with sub Saharan African nations; Benefit from a succinct summation of the policy that the Obama Administration has adopted that will become its doctrine in history; Learn of the various governmental, quasi-and semi-governmental and private organizations, companies and initiatives that have existing and recently funded to drive the various aspects of the doctrine; Know how much money is being allocated and/or doled out to establish or continue funding of different elements of the doctrine, from existing institutions and new ones recently formed; and Have access to a complete guide, website, phone number, contact and other information to all the related organizations, agencies and private companies that are partners in the build-out and development of The Africa Doctrine. There is no need to draw out the canon beyond the pages of this book. It sufficiently and in a clear and easy-to-follow style and manner presents the policy on Africa for readers. INTRO (continue)

5 Chapter I History 6 Chapter II Background 7 Chapter III The Obama Doctrine 8 CHAPTER IV The Clean Energy Leap Frog Effect 9 CHAPTER V Power Africa- The Details 11 CHAPTER VI Clean up Corruption , Establish Standards and 13 Ensure Democratic Elections Past Efforts Current landscape Future CHAPTER VII: Invest in Next Generation of Leaders 15 CHAPTER VIII: Resources 18 TABLE OF CONTENTS

6 President Barack Obama is a son of Africa. His father, Barack Obama Sr., a Kenyan university student, met Obama’s mother Ann Dunham while studying at the University of Hawaii. The two dated, fell in love, married, and had a son before eventually splitting up in the early 60s. Thus, many in Africa placed tremendous pressure and hope upon the first Black U.S. President. They anticipated his election would mean increased attention and focus on the continent of 1 billion people, especially towards those in sub-Sahara Africa, which makes up the bulk of the Black population on the continent. Northern Africa is primarily Arab, and wealthier because of the large amounts of oil, and has different culture and other issues. Nonetheless, President Obama focused much of his first term in office on building up a downturn economy and getting Congress to pass an expansive healthcare legislation, which left little time to devote to Africa. In that time, he had only dedicated 22 hours to Africa during a fly over stop to Ghana. His wife, First Lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Sasha and Malia would make two diplomatic trips there; but to many people it was not enough. He’d have to make up some ground. Chapter I: History

7 Obama decided to focus on long term sustainable projects and goals. Currently, “Africa receives merely 2% of all U.S. exports,” Obama would say during remarks at a business leaders’ forum in Tanzania. The US government’s total trade with the entire continent is the same as trade with Brazil or South Africa, which each have a small fraction of Africa’s population. In fact, Taiwan has 1/38 of Africa’s population, yet exported $28 billion to the U.S., roughly the equivalent of Macy’s annual revenues. To say Africa is underperforming on its potential is an understatement. “The entire GDP of sub- Saharan Africa is still less than $2 trillion -- which is about the same as Italy,” Obama said at the forum. Africa would need to quickly come up with a way to jolt its economy in an innovative field and become a resource or producer of something new. Meanwhile, President Obama, for most of his first term, had fought resistance from Republicans and other traditionalists back home who were against his efforts to refocus energy resource interest into new and innovative renewable sources such as wind turbine and other clean energy products. Encouraging and supporting sub-Saharan African nations to take the lead and serve as a test case for new technology seemed to be an easy opportunity for a win-win solution. The new clean energy initiatives could provide crucial revenue sources for poor nations and help light and power up poor townships and operations in Africa which are supported only by generators. Obama could then easily point to successes in Africa’s experimentation with using new renewable energy sources when skeptics challenge the technology. But to get there, most sub-Saharan countries would have to abide by and establish means of complying with worldwide industry standards and transparency in government; countries would have to alleviate fraud in voting and ensure fair and democratic elections, as well as reduce corruption and fraud. All those efforts would make Africa a truly viable and attractive destination for multinational investors. The Obama administration acquired commitment from partners to work towards that goal. However, this created funding with public/private and nonprofit partnerships, as well as cooperation with an African Youth Empowerment program with the goal of training and indoctrinating emerging young African leaders in those principles. This was to ensure, going forward, they were committed to creating the standards needed to maintain a consistent investor-attractive environment and infrastructure. Indeed, President Obama had some big shoes to fill, as his immediate predecessors had visited the continent more often and had spent a lot of money in aid and support to fight HIV/AIDS and other epidemics facing Africans in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Chapter II: Background

8 George W. Bush and Bill Clinton both launched many initiatives and spent a lot of money in Africa. Their efforts were key to reducing the rate of HIV/AIDS , malaria, infant and maternal mortality, and increasing food security and safety. Obama even faced comparison to other developed nations that had been paying more attention to Africa and investing heavily in it in recent years. The newest prime minister of China visited the continent within a month of taking office. China, along with Brazil, have invested much in Africa, though mainly to extract precious oil and other natural resources from the mineral-rich land mass. Still in 2012, Brazil’s top investment bank BTG Pactual said it planned to raise $1 billion to create the world’s biggest investment fund for Africa, focusing on areas such as infrastructure, energy, and agriculture. Its two most recent prime ministers visited over 25 nations. Chapter II: Background (continue)

9 Obama’s choice to focus on trade is a smart one, as it has implications beyond the here and now, and could spell good business for the U.S. as well. To say Africa is underperforming on its potential is an understatement. “The entire GDP of sub- Saharan Africa is still less than $2 trillion -- which is about the same as Italy,” Obama said at a forum in Tanzania. In addition to helping Africa bolster those numbers, Obama also presented new clean energy initiatives which could provide crucial revenue sources for poor nations and serve as a test case for new technology. Obama could easily point to successes in Africa’s experimentation with using new renewable energy sources when skeptics here challenge the technology. To achieve this, most sub-Saharan countries would have to make drastic changes when it comes to complying with worldwide industry standards and transparency in government, as well as alleviate fraud in voting to ensure fair and democratic elections, reducing corruption and fraud. Making these efforts would help investors see African nations as attractive investment opportunities. Partners have made a commitment to the Obama administration to work towards that goal. Funding has also been created that will work in partnership with public, private, and nonprofit organizations to empower youth and train them, committing to creating and maintaining the required standards to attract and keep investors. The Obama Africa Doctrine – In Sum Taking off from where Bush left off, Obama is investing in Africa in three ways: 1) Encouraging inter-regional investment and trade by helping to establish and maintain systems and mechanisms to combat corruption, establish international standards, and bolster civic participation and transparency in elections; 2) Helping Africa Increase Its Power Supply which is key to developing and establishing a test case for Clean Energy; and 3) Working to indoctrinate Africa’s Youth so that they will already know what needs to be done to build a strong middle class and wean itself from overreliance on international aid. Chapter III: The Obama Doctrine

10 Over 2/3 of sub-Saharan people have no access to regular and reliable electricity on a day-to- day basis. As can be imagined, such a catastrophic state in resources can and does contribute to significant stagnation. According to the International Energy Agency, sub-Saharan Africa will require more than $300 billionininvestmenttoachieveuniversalelectricityaccessby2030.Successrequiresanadditional 10,000 megawatts of new electricity generated. This added source would expand electricity to 20 million homes and businesses. To build power utilities from scratch this late in the game could prove to be a daunting task; experimenting with traditional infrastructure development could take centuries to build out. To increase access to electricity, Power Africa will work to light up communities using on-grid, mini- grid, and off-grid solutions. If the continent was able to take the reins with support from the U.S. and other multinational organizations and private businesses, it could create a model that other nations would look to copy. It is poised to even leap frog over other nations with smaller populations that are surpassing sub-Saharan African nations in their GDP. However, to convince governments to consider new innovative energy resources, they’d need to see significant contribution from efforts of leveraging financing, insurance, technical assistance, and grant tools from across the US government and private sector partners. The program will use innovative clean energy, using between 7 to 8 billion U.S. dollars combined with about $10B already committed from private companies. It’s the private sector investment that really provides the juice to make it work. Six private companies have stepped forward, and Power Africa will add more than 10,000 megawatts of cleaner, more efficient electricity generation capacity. In addition, the company will enhance energy resource management capabilities, allowing partner countries to meet their critical energy needs and achieve greater energy security. The U.S. would also seemingly have to promise that some government leaders that their offices and ministries would be the first to test out initiatives. However, some have argued that perhaps it is a wasted opportunity. This is one of the reasons to indoctrinate fresh young leaders who would be able to see the benefit beyond the here and now, and who may put the needs of the people ahead of their own. Chapter IV: The Clean Energy Leap Frog Effect

11 The most pronounced visual imagery in news reports from the trip was that of the president bouncing a soccer ball on his head. Only it wasn’t just for fun and games. After showing off his skills, he was able to use the kinetic energy created from the ball bouncing around to power up a phone. A Kenyan-American woman invented the ball, called a “Sokket” ball, as part of Uncharted Play, a nine-person New York City-based not-for-profit social network that is working to bring electricity into rural communities like those in sub-Saharan Africa. The ball could also be used to light up a lamp to read at night. That exhibit was an example of the type of innovation that could ease Africa’s energy problem and could possibly help it leap-frog other nations in future energy creation. The International Energy Agency predicts that sub-Saharan Africa will require more than $300 billion in investment to achieve universal electricity by 2030. If Africa were to successfully adopt and implement clean technology to meet the needs of the billions of inhabitants, it could prove a convincing test case for relatively new technology. Obama could easily point to the success Africa found using new renewable energy sources when skeptics here challenge the technology. The U.S. sends food aid to Africa annually, but insufficient and archaic power sources make it difficult for rural villages and other areas to get power to generate refrigerators for storage. More than two-thirds of the people in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity at all. Power Africa is program targeted at encouraging and aiding innovation. It will include a $2million off-grid energy challenge funded by the U.S. African Development Foundation (USADF). African- owned and operated enterprises could compete for up to $100,000 to develop or expand the use of proven technologies for off-grid electricity benefitting rural and marginal populations. Furthermore, the African Development Bank and private companies would shell out funding, in addition to $7- $8 billion in US government money. The Government run-and-funded partners: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) – this agency will provide $285 million in technical assistance, grants, and risk mitigation to advance private sector energy transactions and help governments adopt and implement the policy, regulatory, and other reforms necessary to attract private sector investment in the energy and power sectors. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) – this group will commit up to $1.5 billion in financing and insurance to energy projects in sub-Saharan Africa. U.S. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im) – this bank will make available up to $5 billion in support of U.S. exports for the development of power projects across sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter V: Power Africa - The Details

12 Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) –will invest up to $1 billion in African power systems through its country contacts to increase the access, reliability, and sustainability of electricity supply through investments in energy infrastructure, policy and regulatory reforms and institutional capacity building. OPIC and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) will provide up to $20 million in project preparation, feasibility and technical assistance grants to develop renewable energy projects. These efforts will be coordinated through the U.S. - Africa Clean Energy Finance Initiative (US-ACEF) and supported by the recently launched U.S. - Africa Clean Energy Development and Finance Center (CEDFC) in Johannesburg, South Africa. The U.S. African Development Foundation (USADF) will launch a $2 million Off-Grid Energy Challenge to provide grants of up to $100,000 to African-owned and operated enterprises to develop or expand the use of proven technologies for off-grid electricity benefitting rural and marginalized populations. In 2014, OPIC and USAID will jointly host an African energy and infrastructure investment conference. The conference will bring investors, developers, and companies together with U.S. and African government officials to demonstrate the opportunities for investment and the tools and resources available for the U.S. government and other partners to support investment. Private sector investors have committed over $9 billion for initial funding. Companies involved include: General Electric which commits to help bring online 5,000 megawatts of new, affordable energy through provision of its technologies, expertise and capital in Tanzania and Ghana. It has committed to offer $2.5 billion of investment and financing in energy, generating an additional 2,000 megawatts of electricity capacity over next five years. Symbion Power aims to catalyze $1.8 billion in investment to support 1,500 megawatts of new energy projects in Power Africa countries over the next five years. Aldwych International commits to developing 400 MW of clean wind power in Kenya and Tanzania, which will represent the first large-scale wind projects in each of these countries, and an associated investment of $1.1 billion. Harith General Partners commits to $70 million in investment for clean wind energy in Kenya, and $500 million across the African power sector via a new fund. Husk Power Systems will seek to complete installation of 200 decentralized biomass-based mini power plants in Tanzania, providing affordable lighting for 60,000 households. The African Finance Corporation intends to invest $250 million in the power sectors of Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria, catalyzing $1 billion in investment in sub-Saharan Africa energy projects. Chapter V: Power Africa - The Details (continue)

13 Current landscape: Today, the vast majority of U.S. trade with Africa is with only three countries: South Africa, Nigeria and Angola. Of all the sub-Saharan nations, these have the most thriving economies, and have many inhabitants who would be considered middle class by world standards. But there is interest to expand U.S.-Africa trade to more nations. In particular, the United States is looking to provide more opportunities for small and medium- sized companies, entrepreneurs, merchants, and farmers, including women. Economic growth within the middle sector of business leaders is key for economic growth and lifting 50 million Africans out of poverty.   Future Test Cases: As one could imagine, changing a centuries-old ways of doing things will be difficult. To make the task possible, Obama has decided to start with the sub-Sahara region where most countries are already doing their part to increase trade initiatives. Initial funds and support from the United States will target 5 East African nations: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. The region has a total population of 130 million people. There is emerging wealth in the population of this region. More and more are becoming educated and are part of a globalized emerging middle class. Trade within nations has doubled within the past 5 years. The region’s GDB has risen to over $80 billion, which represents a quadrupling in only 10 years. The efforts have a goal of 1) increasing exports by 40 percent; 2) decreasing the time needed to import or export a container from the ports of Mombasa or Dar es Salaam to land-locked Burundi and Rwandan by 15%; and 3) decreasing the average time it takes a truck to transit to selected borders. Overall purpose: 1. Making the region attractive to the business community. Existing trade treaties would be taken into consideration. 2. Developing product standards, regulatory systems for food safety and plant and animal health. 3. Turning existing trade hubs into investment centers that will be used to offer information, advisory services, risk mitigation, and financing. The goal is to link U.S. and East African investors and exporters. Chapter VI: Clean up Corruption , Establish Standards and Ensure Democratic Elections

14 4. Promoting the existing “Doing Business in Africa” campaign which aims to encourage U.S. businesses to take advantage of growing trade and investment opportunities in Africa, and promotestradeandreversetrademissions, tradeshowsandbusinesstobusinessmatchmaking 5. Supporting efforts to encourage trade within the countries in the region via: 5.1. Lowering barriers and hurdles at borders by, for example, having a single border crossing , modernizing their customs and updating technology so customs can communicate with each other. 5.2. Encouraging a single EAC customs agency that also has authority to share revenue. 5.3. Combating challenges that make the region non-competitive, through for example, reducing the number of roadblocks and amount of time and fees paid to move products from ports to neighboring borders. Once all the efforts of the region are squared away for the most part, there will be lessons learned, reports, established ways of doing business, and other instructional knowledge explored. This will make it very easy to replicate the model for other regions. Chapter VI: Clean up Corruption , Establish Standards and Ensure Democratic Elections (continue)

15 To truly make a change toward sustainable development, the next generation of leaders will have to be primed and prepared to lead in an open, transparent, corruption-free, governmental environment. This government must work with the private sector and make demands of multinational companies that come to pillage resources, and work hard to establish standards and systems that encourage investment and improve the quality of life for residents. The Obama administration has also been working to ensure that, going forward, the next generation of leaders operate regimes that are not corrupt, maintain international standards and work to support continued economic growth and prosperity for all citizens so they build a strong middle class. Past Efforts: Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI) – beginning in 2010, this program has brought young African leaders to the U.S. for training and support. Since its creation, U.S. embassies have reached out to young Africans by, for example, awarding small grants totaling $750,000 to YALI alumni groups supporting youth development in Africa. Since inception, the U.S Agency for International Development (USAID) has partnered with over 76 African universities and invested over $100 million to help train a new generation of African leaders in health, agriculture, education, environmental science, technology, and other sectors. USAID has also worked with local governments and institutions to strengthen access to education, workforce training, and skills development to help young Africans develop the skills needed to enter the labor force. To further expand YALI, USAID will establish regional hubs to enhance leadership and training opportunities in Africa, and better leverage over $200 million in ongoing youth programs and initiatives, such as university partnerships and vocational training, on the continent. EmbassyYouthCouncils-In25nations,therearecouncilsofup-and-comingleadersthatregularly meet with high-level U.S. officials when they travel throughout the continent. AfricanWomenLeadersforuminSouthAfrica–DuringadiplomatictriptoAfricain2012,FirstLady Michelle Obama participated in an event centered around encouraging female empowerment and inclusion in all aspects of governing, entrepreneurship and nation-building. Innovation Summit and Mentoring - In 2012, in partnership with private companies, several young Africans came to the U.S. for internships. Other State Department-led efforts- Programs such as LIONS @FRICA and Apps4Africa have focused on building an entrepreneurial ecosystem for young entrepreneurs, and partnered with the private sector to run startup competitions, grow incubators, and develop innovative new products to address local business and development needs. Chapter VII: Invest in Next Generation of Leaders

16 Events–TheU.S.governmenthasheldover2,000eventstodevelopthenextgenerationofAfrican leaders. For example, in May 2011, the U.S. government hosted 200“Dialogue withYoung African Leaders” events in 37 nations in one month. The program identified new partners, collected important feedback on the U.S. government youth programs and established a platform to get the young leaders together to discuss issues critical to their respective, nations. African Union Youth Volunteer Corps– The USAID has partnered with the African Union to help fund pre-deployment training for 100% of those participating in the program in multiple African Union departments. Higher Education Solutions Network - The USAID spends $25 million annually to partner with African and U.S. higher education institutions with the purpose of using science, technology and engineering to educate future leaders and find research solutions to solve Africa’s development challenges. Uganda youth education and training – The Department of Labor invests in efforts to promote safe youth employment and business opportunities as alternatives to child labor, including a new $3 million program in Uganda to educate and train youth for quality jobs. Somali Youth internship – The U.S. African Development Foundation is investing $5 million in training and placing thousands of Somali youth in paid internships and jobs, in addition to supporting small business start-ups. Supporting Youth Development Foundations - The United States partners with Mo Ibrahim Foundation, The Rockefeller Foundation, and The Tony Elumelu Foundation to support the development of young African leaders throughout the continent. Future: The president announced the Washington Fellowship for Young African Leaders program that would develop a network of thousands of young African leaders across key sectors for Africa’s growth and development. The Fellowship will bring 500 young leaders to U.S. universities and colleges each year for academic and leadership training, starting in 2014. Eventually, it will increase to 1000 participants per year within five years. Fellows will receive world-class training and mentoring in three vital areas: business and entrepreneurship, civic leadership, and public administration. Training will include a Presidential Summit in Washington D.C., where they will interact with U.S. government, civic, and business leaders, including President Obama. With the support of private and public sector partners, Washington Fellows will have access to exceptional opportunities including internships and placements with companies and NGOs and small grants to start businesses, establish or expand non-governmental organizations, or undertake projects to improve their communities. Chapter VII: Invest in Next Generation of Leaders

17 Regional enrichment seminars, an on-line community, and a vibrant alumni network across Africa will also support Washington Fellows as they seek innovative solutions to local and global challenges. The United States, in conjunction with leading private sector partners such as Boeing, Ethiopian Air, and Microsoft, will support the Washington Fellows in pursuing these opportunities. More information on this flagship program can be found at http://youngafricanleaders.state. gov.   Chapter VII: Invest in Next Generation of Leaders

18 U.S. Agency - for International Development (USAID) - this agency will provide $285 million in technical assistance, grants, and risk mitigation to advance private sector energy transactions and help governments adopt and implement the policy, regulatory, and other reforms necessary to attract private sector investment in the energy and power sectors. Contact Website: http://www.usaid.gov/partnership-opportunities/respond-solicitation Phone: (202) 712-4810 Email: div@usaid.gov Power Africa - It will include a $2million off-grid energy challenge funded by the U.S. African Development Foundation (USADF). African-owned and operated enterprises could compete for up to $100,000 to develop or expand the use of proven technologies for beneficial off-grid electricity. Contact Contact Office/Person: Andrew M. Herscowitz Website: http://www.usaid.gov/powerafrica/partner-power-africa Phone: 202-712-4810 Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) - this group will commit up to $1.5 billion in financing and insurance to energy projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Contact Website: http://www.opic.gov/opic-action/impact-investing Phone: (202) 336-8400 Email: info@opic.gov U.S. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im) – this bank will make available up to $5 billion in support of U.S. exports for the development of power projects. Contact Website: http://www.exim.gov/ Phone: (202) 565-3946 Email: info@exim.gov MillenniumChallengeCorporation(MCC)-$1 billion in African power systems through its country contacts to increase access and the reliability and sustainability of electricity supply. Contact: Website: http://www.mcc.gov/ Chapter VIII – Resources

19 OPIC and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) - up to $20 million in project preparation, feasibility and technical assistance grants to develop renewable energy projects. These efforts will be coordinated through the U.S. - Africa Clean Energy Finance Initiative (US- ACEF) and supported by the recently launched U.S. - Africa Clean Energy Development and Finance Center (CEDFC) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Website: www.opic.gov, www.ustda.gov, Email: info@opic.gov, acef@opic.gov U.S. - Africa Clean Energy Finance Initiative (US-ACEF) - up to $20 million in project preparation, feasibility and technical assistance grants to develop renewable energy projects. Contact: Website: http://www.opic.gov/sites/default/files/files/ACEF%20One-Pager%2005%2021%20 2013%20final.pdf Phone U.S. - Africa Clean Energy Development and Finance Center (CEDFC) in Johannesburg, South Africa. -up to $20 million in project preparation, feasibility and technical assistance grants to develop renewable energy projects. Contact Website: http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org Phone: +1 212-963-4260 Email: dsd@un.org U.S. African Development Foundation (USADF) - $2 million Off-Grid Energy Challenge to provide grants of up to $100,000 to African-owned and operated enterprises. Contact Website: http://www.adf.gov/ General Electric $2.5 billion Contact Website: http://www.ge.com Phone: 800 227-5003 Email: citizenship@ge.com Chapter VIII – Resources

20 Symbion Power aims to catalyze $1.8 billion. Contact Website: http://symbion-power.com Phone: + 1 202 223 6750 Email: alissa.wulff@symbion-power.com Aldwych International commits to developing 400 MW of clean wind power in Kenya and Tanzania, representing the first large-scale wind projects in each of these countries, and an associated investment of $1.1 billion. Contact Website: http://www.aldwych-international.com/ Phone: +44 (0)20 7776 1900 Email: contact@aldwych-international.com Harith General Partners commits to $70 million in investment for clean wind energy in Kenya and $500 million across the African power sector via a new fund. Contact Website: http://www.harith.co.za Phone: +27 11 384 4000 Email: Pule.Molebeledi@Harith.co.za Husk Power Systems will seek to complete installation of 200 decentralized biomass-based mini power plants in Tanzania, providing affordable lighting for 60,000 households. Contact Website: http://www.huskpowersystems.com/ Phone: +256 754 250 786 Email: ranjan @ huskpowersystems.com The African Finance Corporation intends to invest $250 million in the power sectors of Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria, catalyzing $1 billion in investment in sub-Saharan Africa energy projects. Contact Website: http://www.africafc.org/ Phone: +234 1 279 9600 Chapter VIII – Resources

21 Jeneba Jalloh Ghatt is the owner and managing editor of The Ghatt Law Group LLC and is the editor-in-chief and founder of several influential web properties and websites. She “covered” the White House and Congress as the Washington Correspondent for the political websites Politic365.com, for Urban Faith and as a columnist at The Washington Times. She has attended several workshops and press events at the White House. Throughout the two terms of the Obama administration, she reported on the Obamas’ various visits and trips to Africa. She is a native of Sierra Leone, West Africa and immigrated to the United States as a toddler. She lives in the Washington, DC Metropolitan area with her husband, an attorney at the US Department of Defense, and their three children. AUTHOR BIO

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