The Nineteenth Century

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Information about The Nineteenth Century

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Brainy007


The Nineteenth Century:  The Nineteenth Century Immigration and Reform 1820-1850 The Nineteenth Century:  The Nineteenth Century Immigration Reform Immigration :  Immigration From 1776-1814 European immigration to the United States moved at a snails pace. From 1783-1819 the United States averaged 7,000 immigrants per year. Immigration picks during the 1820’s and continues to increase in 30’s, 40’s and 50’s. Immigration Statistics:  Immigration Statistics 1783-1819- 7,000 average per year 1825- 10,199 immigrants 1830- 23,322 1840-84,066 1845-1854- 2.6 million Destinations, Sea Coast Cities:  Destinations, Sea Coast Cities Boston Philadelphia New York- 1855, Castle Garden- Immigration receiving center Frontier Who made the journey?:  Who made the journey? The Irish German British Scandinavian Chinese Nativists The Irish:  The Irish Irish immigrants were the largest group of foreign born in the United States by 1860, 1.6 million Irish, reasons for leaving Ireland:  Irish, reasons for leaving Ireland British: Rule, Protestantism, Landlords, and Taxes. Depression and Social hardship Potato Famine, 1845, over 1 million peasants died. Irish Immigration:  Irish Immigration Travel Journey took six weeks Unsanitary conditions- typhus, dysentery and malnutrition caused thousands to die before reaching the United States. 1847 40,000 died “coffin ships” Huddled together in Eastern cities, around Catholic Churches By the 1850’s the Irish made up over half the populations of Boston and New York Irish Immigration- Employment:  Irish Immigration- Employment Construction Gangs, canals and railroads Laborers in factories, steel mills and shipyards Women- textile mills, domestic servants Irish in America: “The poorest and most wretched population that could be found in the world.” Archbishop of New York, 1850’s:  Irish in America: “The poorest and most wretched population that could be found in the world.” Archbishop of New York, 1850’s Living Conditions Most lived in filthy tenements. High Rate of: Crime Infant Mortality Infectious disease Prostitution Alcoholism Irish in America: Challenges:  Irish in America: Challenges Anti-Catholic sentiment “No Irish Need Apply” Filthy, Ignorant, Alcoholics “Were I asked to say what I believed to be the most serious obstacle to the advancement of the Irish in America, I would unhesitatingly answer- Drink; meaning thereby the excessive use, or abuse, of that which, when taken in excess, intoxicates, deprives man of his reason, interferes with his industry, injures his health, damages his position, compromises his respectability, renders him unfit for the successful exercise of his trade, profession, employment- which leads to quarrel, turbulence, violence, crime.” Maguire, John Francis, The Irish in America Irish in America: Success:  Irish in America: Success Tight community/Cultural Identity Churches, political groups, saloons, fire companies. Powerful voting constituency- local politics, Democratic Party, by the 1880’s controlled Tammany Hall. The Irish pushed the growth of the Catholic Church in the United States. Who made the journey? The Germans:  The Germans Many Germans made their way to the United States due to failed revolutions in 1830 and 1848. From the late 1840’s through the 1850’s over 1 million Germans made their way to the United States. The Germans: Characteristics:  The Germans: Characteristics German Immigrants were: Educated, cultured professional people, doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers, farmers and artisans. Politically savvy and opinionated Religiously diverse, Catholic, Lutheran, Jewish, even Atheist and Agnostics German Immigration:  German Immigration Often immigrated in groups rather than individuals like the Irish. Often looked to the frontier for settlement, St. Louis, San Antonio, and Milwaukee Very independent, skills allowed German immigrants to capitalize on the American Economy. German Immigration: Challenges:  German Immigration: Challenges Prejudice Religion Alcohol Success- economic and political Who made the Journey? British, Scandinavian, and Chinese:  British, Scandinavian, and Chinese British, largely professional, farmers and skilled workers. Scandinavians- Swedes and Norwegians, settled in Wisconsin and Minnesota. By 1860 population was over 72,600. Chinese- Treaty of Nanking (1842),Treaty of Tien Tsin (1858), Unemployed, “Kidnapped” 35,500 by 1860. Construction gangs, Railroads- Coolie labor Who made the journey? The Nativists:  The Nativists Native born Americans, preferred “native” Americans to immigrants. Feared that immigrants would take their job opportunities. Anti-Catholic- Attack on the Ursiline Convent, Charlestown, MA Native American Association, Order of the Star Spangled Banner, Know Nothing/American Party. Who made the journey? The Reform Movement:  The Reform Movement The Second Great Awakening Transcendentalists Oneida Community Temperance Movement Education Women’s Rights Abolition Second Great Awakening:  Second Great Awakening Some Protestants begin to turn away from the Calvinist doctrine of predestination. Evangelical Of, relating to, or being a Christian church believing in the sole authority and inerrancy of the Bible, in salvation only through regeneration, and in a spiritually transformed personal life. New denominations- Baptist, Methodist and Mormons Transcendentalists:  Transcendentalists Transcendentalism asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition. Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalists:  Transcendentalists Emerson “Insist on yourself; Never imitate. Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life’s cultivation;…That which each can do best, none but his master can teach him.” Emerson, Self-Reliance Self-Reliance, 1840,- transcendental non-conformity instead of following the dictates of society. Advocated creating an American identity Transcendentalists:  Transcendentalists Henry David Thoreau Walden, 1854 Resistance to Civil Government, 1849 “Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once? Non-violent protest Mohandus Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr. Temperance Movement:  Temperance Movement American Temperance Society- founded by Protestant ministers, targeted excessive drinking. Alcohol led to violence, crime and had led to a lack of productivity. Encouraged abstinence States began to ban the sale of alcohol, others taxed liquor. Oneida Community:  Oneida Community John Humphrey Noyes, 1848 Cooperative Community, Oneida, NY Utopia An ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects. Community combined industrial and agricultural production and owned by the inhabitants. Education :  Education Free Public Schools Fear of an uneducated poor class, educate the workforce. Could the family be relied on as the providers of republican virtue? Horace Mann- MA Board of Education Women’s Rights Movement:  Women’s Rights Movement Cult of Domesticity Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Suzan B. Anthony, Catherine Beecher, Margaret Fuller Woman’s Rights Convention, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions Equal rights Suffrage Abolition Movement:  Abolition Movement Movement to abolish slavery is getting stronger. Moral, Social, Political, & Economic Issue Pro-slavery arguments Anti-slavery arguments Abolition Organizations Proslavery Arguments:  Proslavery Arguments Founding Fathers, slavery = necessary evil “I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two races of different origin, and distinguished by color and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding states between the two is, instead of an evil, a good- a positive good.” John C. Calhoun, 1837 “Many in the South once believed that [slavery] was a moral and political evil…. That folly and delusion are gone; we see it now in its true light, and regard it as the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the world.” John C. Calhoun, 1837 Proslavery Arguments:  Proslavery Arguments Racism Blacks were inferior to whites and were unsuited for life in any other condition Theological/Bible Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren OT and NT prophets and apostles never condemned the practice Servants should obey their masters Proslavery Arguments:  Proslavery Arguments Historical All the great civilizations of antiquity practiced slavery. Aristotle- in every organized society men of superior talents would become masters over those of inferior talents. Proslavery Arguments:  Proslavery Arguments Social Without slavery planters would be unable to take in the arts and sciences and other civilized pursuits. Guaranteed economic equality for whites, preventing an unskilled labor class- better than the free labor system Proslavery Arguments:  Proslavery Arguments Paternalism- Slaveholding gentlemen took personal responsibility for the physical and moral well-being of their dependents- women, children and slaves. Foner, Give Me Liberty, p 394 No element of disharmony. “It is the only condition of society in which labor and capital are associated on a large scale in which their interests are combined and not in conflict. Every plantation is an organized community… where all work, where each member gets subsistence and a home.” Phrenology Antislavery Arguments:  Antislavery Arguments Slavery = Sin The Reform Movement liberating and perfectionist “Slavery was the greatest social evil in the way of the nation’s moral regeneration.” (Blum, National Experience, p.273) Abolitionist Groups:  Abolitionist Groups American Colonization Society, 1817 Monrovia, Liberia American Antislavery Society, 1831 William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator Liberty Party James Birney African-Americans Fredrick Douglas, The North Star Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, William Still, Underground Railroad

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