Published on March 10, 2014
The New Imperialism Europe Dominates the Modern Era
Part 1: Internal Troubles, External Threats China and the Ottoman Empire 1800-1914
The Big Ideas • The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire – New motives, new means – New perceptions of the “Other” • Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis – The crisis within – Western pressures – The failure of conservative modernization
• The Ottoman Empire and the West in the 19th Century – “The Sick Man of Europe” – Reform and its opponents – Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire • Reflections: Success and failure in history
The External Challenge: European Industry and Empire Section A
New Motives, New Means • 19th century= Europe’s golden age of expansion and domination of global trade • Europeans used new technology to push further than ever into Asia and Africa • Even newly independent states in Latin America became economically dependent on the West
• Industrialization became a major motive for imperial expansion • Europeans sought colonies to gain – Raw materials • Gold and diamonds from Africa – Cash crops • Beef from Argentina • Cocoa and palm oil from West Africa • Rubber from Brazil • Tea from Ceylon
• Europeans also sought new markets for their manufactured goods – This kept factories humming and the proletariat working – By 1840, the British were exporting 60 % of their cotton textiles • 200 million yards to Europe • 300 million yards to Latin America • 145 million yards to India • Europeans were also looking for new places to invest their capital – Between 1910 and 1913, Britain spent about half of its savings on foreign investment in its colonies
“Yesterday I attended a meeting of the unemployed in London and having listened to wild speeches which were nothing more than a scream for bread, I returned home convinced more than ever of the importance of imperialism… In order to save the 40 million inhabitants of the United Kingdom from a murderous civil war, the colonial politicians must open up new areas to absorb the excess population and create new markets for the products of mines and factories… The British Empire is a matter of bread and butter. If you wish to avoid civil war, then you must become an imperialist.” • Cecil Rhodes
• Nationalism, especially after the unification of Germany in the 1870s led to widespread competition to gain colonies – Gaining land became more important than what the land could provide – Colonies became a nation’s marker of wealth and power
• Imperialism also provided a way for nations to reach their goals – Construction of the Suez canal sped up trade between Europe and Asia – The Underwater telegraph made it possible to communicate instantaneously with people on different continents – Quinine helped Europeans prevent Malaria – Breech-loading rifles further increased European military might
Questions • What motives led to increased European imperialism in the Industrial Age? • How did imperialism benefit European nations? • What technology helped Europeans colonize more rapidly?
New Perceptions of the “Other” • Imperialism contributed to shaping European views of Asians and Africans in the 19th century • Europeans were VERY ethnocentric, seeing a world in which two kinds of people existed; themselves and others.
• The more industrialization increased, the more Europeans looked down on colonized peoples – Images of “John Chinaman” replaced once respected Chinese scholars in the European psyche, and fear of the “yellow peril” spread – Once powerful African slaving kingdoms were reduced to “tribes” in European eyes
• Europeans used the lens of modern science as a way of justifying racism and judging non-Western societies – Phrenologists and craniologists claimed that differences in skull shapes/sizes marked intelligence • they claimed their “science” proved the superiority of whites! • This led to classification of non-whites as “Child races” that needed to be supervised by Westerners • In 1850, British anatomist Robert Knox said, “Race is everything, civilization depends on it.”
• Racial supremacy also became fuel for European expansion – In 1883, Briton Jules Ferry said, “Superior races have a right, because they have a duty.” – British poet Rudyard Kipling explained the importance and burden of colonization to Americans in his poem, “The White Man’s Burden” in 1899
Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly Bring all your hopes to naught. Take up the White Man's burden-- And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard-- The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-- "Why brought he us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?" Take up the White Man's burden-- Have done with childish days-- The lightly proferred laurel, The easy, ungrudged praise. Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers! “The White Man’s Burden”
Question • Based on this poem by Rudyard Kipling, what is the white man’s burden?
• Social Darwinism = a perversion of Darwin’s survival of the fittest theory • It argued that Europeans were destined to displace or destroy “unfit” races. • A British Bishop said of the Australian aborigines – “Everyone who knows a little about the aboriginal races is aware that those races which are of a low type of mentality and who are at the same time weak in constitution rapidly die out when their country comes to be occupied by a different race much more rigorous, robust, and pushing than themselves.”
Questions 1. In what ways did the Industrial Revolution shape the character of 19th century European imperialism? 2. What contributed to changing European views of Asians and Africans in the 19th century?
Reversal of Fortune China’s Century of Crisis Section B
The Crisis Within • How China was a victim of its own success: – Strong economy and American food crops led to rapid population growth – China was mired in the past and did not industrialize – Unemployment and poverty soared – Famines broke out all over the Chinese countryside as the land was over used
• China’s government did not change to meet the new needs of its people – Government size stayed the same while population soared – Corruption became commonplace • In 1852, a government official stated: – “Day and night soldiers are sent out to harass taxpayers. Sometimes corporal punishment was imposed on tax delinquents; some of them so badly beaten to exact the last penny that blood and flesh fly in all directions.”
• Other problems arose as the dynasty declined – Banditry – Peasant rebellions • Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864): Biggest of all of the peasant rebellions – Leader, Hong Xiuquan, claimed to be Jesus' brother and had taken and failed the civil service test many times – Desired to create a “heavenly kingdom of great peace” – Rejected Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism
• The Taiping Rebellion aimed to remove the foreign Qing Dynasty who Hong accused of poisoning China from power • The Taiping rebellion spread quickly, by 1853 they had established a new capital in Nanjing
• Why did the Taiping Rebellion fail? – Inability to link up all rebelling groups – Rise of factions within the Taiping – The Qing Dynasty enlisted the help of Western Powers to help crush the rebellion – Provincial landowners fearing the radical Taiping also helped put down rebels
• Effects of the Taiping Rebellion – By 1864 the rebellion was over, but the Qing were incredible weakened – 20 to 30 million Chinese were dead – Western powers gained even more power in China
Questions • Of the various internal problems facing the Qing which played the greatest role in the decline of the dynasty and why?
External Threats to Qing China • The Opium War, Western powers gain a foothold into China – The British broke China’s positive balance of trade by ramping up opium (grown in India) imports smuggled into China – By the time Chinese officials realized the problem there was too much corruption, and too many addicts for the Qing government to stop it.
Chinese/British trade in Canton (1835-1836) British Exports to Canton (in Spanish dollars) • Opium: …..……17,904,248 • Cotton: …………8,357,394 • Other Items:..6,164,981 • Total: ………….32,426,623 British Imports from China (in Spanish dollars) • Tea: …………….13,412,623 • Raw Silk: ………3,764,115 • Vermillion: ………705,000 • Other Items: 5,971,541 • Total:………....23,852,899 Write a generalization based on the information in the table above
• China attempts to stop the Opium trade – 1836: Emperor appoints Lin Zexu to stop the importations – Lin writes a letter Queen Victoria asking her to stop the imports – He also seizes and destroys 3 million pounds of Opium
Commissioner Lin's letter to Queen Victoria, Jan. 15, 1840 • . . . Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience? I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries . . .
Question • What is the tone of Lin’s letter and what makes him a reliable source??
• Britain’s response to Lin Zexu: War!
• The Treaty of Nanjing: China’s defeat and humiliation – This is China’s first unequal treaty – Forced the Qing to accept foreign ministers into their court – Gave Europeans control of 5 major ports – Granted Europeans the right of extraterritoriality
• More Chinese losses erode Qing power – 1858: Loose the Second Opium War to the British more ports placed under foreign control – 1885: Loose Vietnam to France – 1895: Loose Korea and parts of Manchuria to Japan
Question • How did trade serve to undermine the Qing Dynasty?
The Failure of Conservative Reform • The Self-Strengthening Movement: Qing attempts to reform – 1860s-1870s – Overhauled the exam system – Supported public works – Attempted to build some industry and mining – Discusses creating a parliament and constitution
• Why the reforms fail: – Too little, too late! – Conservative landlords feared that urbanization and industrialization would erode their power – Fear, hatred and distrust of Empress Dowager Cixi (women leaders = bad luck!) – Industry was largely controlled by foreigners
• The Boxer Rebellion (1898- 1901) – Led by local militias like the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists – Anti-foreign movement aimed at driving out foreign powers (including the Manchu) – Quasi-religious movement that drew upon marital arts folklore – The Qing again used Western powers to crush the rebellion, increasing foreign power in China
• “The War in China: • We’ll all work together to be firm and faithful. Hipp, hipp Hurray!”
• By the early 20th century, the Qing dynasty was on the verge of collapse • Contact with Westerners and foreign domination increasing nationalism • 1911: Western educated doctor Sun Yixian (Sun Yat- Sen) leads a revolution that topples the Qing and establishes a short-lived republic
Question • Explain why reform failed in both the Ottoman and Qing Dynasties
Summary • Evidence of Qing decline appears by the late 18th century – Exams marred by cheating, bribery, and “substitutes” • Public works in disrepair, especially along the rivers – By 1860, 6 million peasants displaced and all of their crops and livestock lost to flooding along the Yellow River
• Opium wars highlight the military weakness of Qing China • Unequal treaties Treaty of Nanjing lead to Foreign control of trade in all major ports (Spheres of Influence) • Rebellions like the Taiping attempt to overthrow the Qing, further weakening the dynasty
• Attempts at reform, like the self- strengthening movement = too little, too late • Boxer Rebellion ends with more foreign control in China • 1911- Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian) overthrows the Qing and establishes a short-lived republic. • Cixi takes the blame
Questions 1. What were some of the causes of discontent in 19th century China? 2. In what way and to what extent did foreign trade effect China? 3. What role did foreign powers play in the decline of the Qing dynasty? 4. What strategies did China adapt to deal with its various problems? 5. In what ways did these strategies reflect China’s own history? 6. In what ways did these strategies reflect the growing influence of the West on China?
The Ottoman Empire From “The Strong Sword of Islam” to the “The Sick Man of Europe” Section C
“The Sick Man of Europe” • In 1750 the Ottoman Empire was large and stable. – Centered around the Anatolian Peninsula – Extended across the Arabian Peninsula – Governed most of Egypt and Northern Africa – Protected pilgrims on their way to Mecca
• The Ottoman Empire was in a serious state of decline by the middle of the 19th century – Pressure from the West • 1853-1856 Crimean War – Internal problems • 1820 Greek Revolution • Other nationalist movements
• Nationalism breaks apart the Ottoman Empire – Nationalist revolts supported by Britain and Russia lead to independence for Greece, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria
• Decentralization of power hurt both the Ottoman and the Qing – As local leaders gained power, collecting revenue became more difficult
• Growing European trade and industrialization hurt the Ottoman Economy – New oceanic shipping routes limited Ottoman ability to trade – Cheap manufactured goods flooded Ottoman markets driving artisans out of business – Trade agreements with Western powers were similar in effect to the unequal treaties signed with China
Questions • Discuss the various factors that served to undermine the Ottoman Empire during the Modern Era
Reform and Its Opponents • Ottoman leaders realized the need for reform and attempted programs of “defensive modernization” • Attempts at reform were earlier and more vigorous than the Chinese self- strengthening movement
• Selim III makes the first attempt to change – Wants to update the military – Seen as a threat to the ulama and the Janissaries – Selim III is overthrown and murdered in 1807
• The Tanzimat (reorganization) reforms were begun in 1839 – Attempted to create a more centralized state – Created some industry including modernizing paper making, military armaments, and building rail roads – Reclaimed and resettled agricultural land – Created a modern postal system – Created Western styled laws and courts – Granted equal legal rights to religious minorities
• Imperial proclamation from 1839: Every distinction or designation to make any class whatever of the subjects of the empire inferior to another class, on account of their religion, language or race shall be forever effaced. … No subject of my Empire shall be hindered in the exercise of the religion he professes. … All the subjects of my Empire, without distinction of nationality, shall be admissible to public employment.
• Reform raised a bunch of questions within Ottoman society – What was the Ottoman Empire and who were its people? – Supporters tended to be fairly young lower-level officials, military officers, poets, writers, and journalists who had been educated in the West
• What did young Western educated elites (Young Ottoman) want? – European style democratic, constitutional governments with limited monarchies – Islamic modernization: adoption of Western technical and scientific knowledge without compromising religious character • Victory: 1876 Abdul Hamid accepts a constitution and creates a parliament
• Reasons for the failure of reform: – Crimean war creates a political crisis, and Abdul Hamid suspends the constitution • Reaction to the failure of reform: – Young Western educated social and military elites form the Young Turks – Demand the gov’t completely secularize – Want to create a Turkish state • 1908: Young Turks gain more power after leading a military coup but side with Central Powers in WWI
• The Eastern Question: Western powers wonder what to do with the “Sick Man of Europe” – How should Western European rulers deal with the Ottoman Empire? – No longer a threat – Held together volatile parts of Asia and Europe – Held important place geographically between Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean
– Worry that collapse will destroy Europe’s delicate Balance of Power – Western nations especially nervous about increasing Austrian and Russian power – Britain and France support Turks against Russia and Austria even as they take over parts of the empire – Building of the Suez Canal and the start of the Crimean war make this issue even more pressing!
• The Ottoman Empire collapsed after World War I, but the Westernizing principals of the Young Turks shaped the new Turkish nation that emerged in 1919
Questions • For what reasons was the ottoman Empire considered the “Sick Man of Europe”? • In what ways and to what extent is this name deserved?
Summary • By 1750, the Ottoman are in obvious decline • Slow to adopt new military technology, strategy, weapons, tactics, etc. • Nationalist movements loss of territory in Greece and Serbia • Local leaders gain increasing power (Muhammad Ali- Egypt)
• Attempts to reform: Selim III, and Mahmud II, Tanzimat Reforms • Conservative backlash- Abd-al-Hamid II throws out constitution • Crimean War highlights military weakness • Emergence of Young Turks • Ottoman referred to as the “Sick Man of Europe” b/c of their inability to reform, failed attempts to westernize, and continued political turmoil.
Questions 1. What are some of the ways the Ottoman state responded to various problems? 2. What was the “Eastern Question” and how did Western powers deal with it? 3. How did the young western educated elites perceive the Ottoman Empire? 4. Compared to China, how effective was the Ottoman Empire at solving its problems?
Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire • Similarities – Prior to the 19th century both areas were centers of proud vibrant civilizations – By the beginning of the 20th century both were semi-colonies of “informal empires” – Neither successfully created strong industrial bases – Both collapsed in the early 1900s – Both gave rise to new nations based on nationalist ideas in the 20th century
• Political Differences: – In China the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 led to a long period of revolution, occupation, and civil war that did not end until 1949 – By contrast, the collapse of the Ottoman regime after World War I the creation of a new, though much smaller Turkish state in the former heartland of the Ottoman empire
• Social Differences: – China’s 20th century revolutionaries rejected their Confucian past – Although the Turkish republic is a secular state, the role of religion in society has not been diminished
Reflections: Success and Failure in History • Things to consider when deciding if Japan was more successful in the 19th century than China or the Ottoman: – Criteria for success: What does success mean? – Success for whom: The Young Turks make many reforms, but does it benefit everyone in the Empire?
Questions for REVIEW 1. How did European expansion differ in the 19th century from that of the early modern era (1450-1750)? 2. “The response of each society to European imperialism grew out of its larger historical development and its internal problems” Support this statement with evidence!
Colonial Encounters: 1750- 1914 Part 2
The Big Ideas • A second wave of European conquests • Under European control – Cooperation and rebellion – Colonial empires with a difference • Ways of working: Comparing colonial economies • Believing and belonging: Identity and cultural change in the colonial era
A Second Wave of European Conquests Section A
Old versus New Imperialism • Old Imperialism: 1500s-1750, conquest of the Americas and establishment of trading posts • New Imperialism: 1750-1914 – Focused on Africa and Asia – Featured Germany, Italy, Belgium, the US and Japan, in addition to Britain and France – Spain and Portugal largely uninvolved – Some formal, but mostly informal colonies established
• Empire building depended on force or threat of force, Briton Hilaire Belloc said: “Whatever happens we have got the Maxim Gun and they have not.”
• New European empires greatly impacted colonial people – Mixed together enemies and split up tribes – Loss of political sovereignty – All people became subjects of European empires
• Different ways of establishing colonies – Britain and France took advantage of the fragmenting Mughal empire to divide and conquer – The Dutch took advantage of local rivalries to gain control in Indonesia – In both cases colonization was a slow and unorganized process – Later colonization in Africa and South East Asia and the Pacific were much more deliberate
• The Scramble for Africa – Intense European competition to divide up the continent – Formalized by the Berlin Conference of 1885 – By 1900, most of Africa was under European control – Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained sovereign – Europeans knew little about the people they conquered – Europeans used a variety of methods to gain control; treaties, trickery, and conquest – Creation of random political boundaries laid the foundation for future ethnic conflict
• Local leaders took many actions to try to avoid foreign rule – Sometimes they enlisted the help of other Europeans – Signed treaties (often unequal) – Attempted to make Western powers fight each other – Attempted to directly fight Europeans
Questions 1. Describe how Western powers established colonies in Africa? 2. How did this process differ from the creation of Spheres of Influence in China?
Under European Rule Section B
Point of View • 1902, a British soldier in East Africa described the conquest of a village: “Every soul was either shot or bayonetted… We burned all the huts and razed the banana plantations to the ground.” What does this quote suggest about imperialism in Africa?
Cooperation and Rebellion • Many colonized people worked for their colonizers – There was a shortage of European officials and soldiers in the colonies – Members of former ruling classes used being employed by European powers to maintain their own status – In India, the British established Princely States, areas ruled by Mughal princes loyal to the British
• Colonial governments and missionary groups set up schools – Local education led to the emergence of a group of low level administrators – Wealthy and powerful colonial people were able to send their children abroad for formal educations – This group of Western educated elites filled key colonial positions – This group eventually led the nationalist independence movements of the 20th century
• Despite the cooperation, there were also rebellions like the 1857-1858: Sepoy Mutiny aka Indian Rebellion – A mutiny led by Hindu and Muslim sepoy over mistreatment and cultural insensitivity – Brutally crushed by the British East India Company – An outrage Parliament disbands the BEIC and takes direct control over India – Racial tension grows
Colonial Empires with a Difference • White Dominions often saw greater separation between colonizers and colonized • In South Africa, black South Africans were forced into “homelands” by Europeans attempting to exploit laborers while limiting their position in society • European technology: rail roads, telegraphs, and medicines also planted seeds of change
Questions 1. What are some reasons colonial peoples might cooperate with outside powers? 2. Why might they oppose foreign rule? 3. How were European colonies of the 19th century different from earlier colonies?
Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Empires Section C
Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State • Colonial peoples were often forced to provide manual labor laying rail roads, clearing land, mining, collecting rubber, and growing cash crops • In Africa and South East Asia, European rule was especially brutal • Belgium’s King Leopold II was notorious for his brutal treatment of people in the Congo
“We were always in the forest to find rubber vines, to go without food, and our women had to give up cultivating in the gardens. Then we starved…. We begged the White Man to leave us alone, saying we could get no more rubber, but the White Man and the soldiers said “Go. You are only beasts yourselves….” When we failed and our rubber was short, the soldiers came to our town and killed us. Many were shot, some had their ears cut off; others were tied with ropes around their necks and taken away.”
Question • Provide evidence that Belgian rule was especially brutal
Economies of Cash Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market • British powers encouraged widespread cotton cultivation in India and Egypt, and rice production in Burma. • The push for cash crops led to less food farming and caused famines • In Vietnam the destruction of rain forest to create plantations was environmentally devastating • Colonized places developed unhealthy, economically dependent relationships with their colonizers
Economies of Wage Labor: Working for Europeans • Colonial people sought employment in European plantations and mines • Overcrowding in colonial cities led to poverty, disease and death • The British sent Indian workers to their colonies all over the world • A 1913 law in South Africa put 88% of the land under European control; black South Africans flocked to European owned farms to avoid deportation to “homelands”
Women in the Colonial Economy: Africa a Case Study • Prior to colonization women throughout Africa were involved in farming and had some economic autonomy • As colonial economies grew, men moved to cities and plantations to earn wages increasing the number of hours women had to spend farming from around 46 hours a week to over 70!
Assessing Colonial Developments • Colonization spurred modern industrial growth around the world • Further integrated Africa and Asia into the global economy • Led to the adoption of Western styled governments following independence • The desire to rid themselves of foreign rule led to massive nationalist movements throughout the 20th century
Questions 1. Describe the relationship between imperialism and coerced labor 2. How did cash-crop economies transform the lives of colonial people? 3. Why did some colonial people seek out wage labor? 4. How did wage labor impact colonial peoples? 5. How were the lives of African women changed as a result of imperialism?
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