Published on February 3, 2014
THE NASA AND THE APOLLO PROGRAM For the benefit of all…
INDEX 1. Glossary. 2. The NASA. ▫ Introduction. ▫ NASA nowadays. ▫ NASA’s budget. 3. A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY: THE SPACE RACE. 4. APOLLO PROGRAM. ▫ From Apollo 7 to Apollo 11. ▫ Apollo 11. ▫ From Apollo 11 to Apollo 17.
GLOSSARY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Budget: presupuesto. Space Race: carrera espacial. Moon-landing: alunizaje (aterrizar en la Luna). (Un)manned: (no) tripulado. Space Shuttle: transbordador espacial. Rocket: cohete. Crew: tripulación. Probe: sonda. Splashdown: amerizaje (landing on water). To exhaust its fuel: gastar su combustible. Ozone depletion: destrucción de la capa de ozono. Store: almacén. Takeoff: despegue. Module: módulo. To test: comprobar.
NASA • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded on the 29th July 1958, replacing the NACA. • It is the agency of the Federal government of the USA responsible for the spatial programme, and the aeronautical and astronautical investigation too. • Between its projects, the most important ones have been the unmanned programs since 1958, the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab Space Station, and later the Space Shuttle. Pionner plaque First human footstep in the moon (1969). Skylab Space Station (1973-1979) Space Shuttle or STS (1981-2011)
SKYLAB SPACE SHUTTLE
NASA Nowadays • At the moment, the NASA gives support to the International Space Station. • It supervises the development of Orion vehicles. They will be spatial ships that will transport astronauts to the Moon and later to Mars. • It also studies sciences of the Earth. For example, it studies the layers of the atmosphere and the ozone depletion. • Last year, the NASA sent the first rover to Mars’ surface successfully. The project is called Curiosity.
NASA’s budget The NASA has more than 18.000 workers and its annual budget is 18 billion dollars. But in the 1960’s, it was more than five times bigger.
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY: THE SPACE RACE • The Space Race was a competition between the Soviet Union and the United States for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on being first in space exploration. They started a race because they considered it necessary for national security and symbolic of their technological and ideological superiority. The Space Race involved huge efforts to launch artificial satellites and human spaceflights around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon. It effectively began with the Soviet launch of the Sputnik 1 artificial satellite on the 4th October 1957, and concluded with the co-operative Apollo-Soyuz mission in July 1975.
APOLLO PROGRAM It started in 1960 and its objective was to land a man to the surface of the Moon. Before getting it, the NASA sent twelve men in four missions. • • • COMMAND MODULE: It contained the astronauts during their trip to the Moon. SERVICE MODULE: It was the store of the oxygen and the gas, and it came off from the Command Module before the landing on the sea. LUNAR MODULE: It could separate from the Command/Service Module to perform the moon landing and then, it could join the CSM again.
FROM APOLLO 1 TO APOLLO 11 • The first Apollo mission (Apollo 1) finished in a tragedy: when the astronauts were doing a test inside the space capsule, it started burning and all the crew died. • Apollo 2 to Apollo 6 were unmanned missions. • The first manned spatial mission of the NASA was the Apollo 7 (1968), but it didn’t go out of the Earth’s orbit. • The next three manned missions were called Apollo 8, Apollo 9 and Apollo 10. Apollo 1’s capsule after the incident.
NASA checking the communication systems (Apollo 7). Astronauts going from the Command M to the Lunar M (Apollo 9). Sunrise in the Earth (photo taken by the Apollo 8’s crew) Photo taken by the Apollo 10’s crew.
APOLLO 11 “It’s one small step for the (a) man, one giant leap for mankind.” On the 16th July 1969, the USA sent to the space the Apollo 11’s mission. Its crew was formed by Armstrong, Collins and Aldrin. It was the mission that transported a man to the surface of the Moon for the first time. Armstrong, Collins and Aldrin
PARTS OF THE SPATIAL ROCKET Command M COLUMBIA Lunar M EAGLE
APOLLO 12 TO APOLLO 17 • The NASA continued sending men to the Moon. The next times they started exploring the Moon surface and they performed new missions, and since the Apollo 15 they moved with a rover. In the Apollo 17, they even brought with them a geologist to study the lunar surface. • But the project started losing audience, and due to the big costs, the government decided to finish with the lunar program after the Apollo 17 in 1973.
APOLLO 12 TO APOLLO 17 • In 1973 they used 3 Apollo ships to transport crews to the Skylab. • In 1975, the last Apollo spaceship was launched for the Apollo-Soyuz mission.
NASA.gov brings you the latest images, videos and news from America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, watch NASA TV live, and learn ...
Images, videos and stories from humankind's first landing on the lunar surface.
NASA: Apollo 11 Mission Report (326 und 109 Seiten, englisch) NASA: Mitschrift des Funkverkehrs (verschiedene Versionen, englisch) NSSDC Master Catalog ...
Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin landed the lunar module Eagle on ...
Jesco von Puttkamer: Apollo 11, Wir sehen die Erde, Herbig, ... NASA: Apollo Lunar Surface Journal; Marsch zum Mond in: Der Spiegel 18/1962 vom 2. Mai 1962;
Apollo-11 (27) Pad 39-A (5) Saturn-V AS-506 (6) High Bay 1 MLP 1 Firing Room 1 Crew: Neil A. Armstrong (2), Commander Edwin E. Aldrin (2), Jr., Lunar ...
S69-34882 The Apollo 11 crew relaxes during training May 24, 1969 S69-38660 Apollo 11 Saturn V on launch pad 39A July 1, 1969 S69-39525 Liftoff of Apollo 11
Images from the Apollo 11 Mission - Catalog of Spaceborne Imaging 30th Anniversary of Apollo - Images, audio clips, and a brief history. The Apollo 11 ...
AS11_CM.PDF: Apollo 11 Onboard Voice Transcription-Command Module, August 1969, 248 pages: AS11_PAO.PDF: Apollo 11 PAO ...
HTML Design by Brian W. Lawrence. Last revised 5 March 2016. No copyright is asserted for NASA photographs. If a recognizable person appears in a photo ...