The Musculoskeletal System

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Information about The Musculoskeletal System

Published on February 18, 2009

Author: txnurse

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This slide was presented to class by Ms. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN.

Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN

Musculoskeletal system includes: skeleton, joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons. Functions of Skeleton Support Protection Movement Hematopoeisis Storage

Musculoskeletal system includes: skeleton, joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons.

Functions of Skeleton

Support

Protection

Movement

Hematopoeisis

Storage

Long – extended shape, provide support & strength Short – approx cube shape Flat – provide broad surfaces for muscle attachments Irregular – similar to short but irregular in shape

Long – extended shape, provide support & strength

Short – approx cube shape

Flat – provide broad surfaces for muscle attachments

Irregular – similar to short but irregular in shape

Compact Bone – hard & dense; composes that shaft of long bones and outer layer of bones. Spongy Bone – composed of small bony plates, contains more spaces than compact bones. Filled with soft substance: marrow Yellow marrow Red marrow – responsible for hematopoiesis

Compact Bone – hard & dense; composes that shaft of long bones and outer layer of bones.

Spongy Bone – composed of small bony plates, contains more spaces than compact bones. Filled with soft substance: marrow

Yellow marrow

Red marrow – responsible for hematopoiesis

Periosteum contains bld vessels that supply O2 & nutrients to bone cells keeping them alive. Two types of osseous tissue: Diaphysis – shaft of the long bones, hard and compact Ephiphysis – end of the long bone, spongelike & covered by a shell or harder bone. Epiphyseal growth plate – diaphysis and epiphysis fuse together Markings – contours of bones that resemble the configuration of landscape. Facet – small plane or smooth area

Periosteum contains bld vessels that supply O2 & nutrients to bone cells keeping them alive.

Two types of osseous tissue:

Diaphysis – shaft of the long bones, hard and compact

Ephiphysis – end of the long bone, spongelike & covered by a shell or harder bone.

Epiphyseal growth plate – diaphysis and epiphysis fuse together

Markings – contours of bones that resemble the configuration of landscape.

Facet – small plane or smooth area

Damage to the Epiphyseal Growth Plate The younger the child is when injury occurs, the greater the final deficit in length between the injured limb and the uninjured limb will be.

Damage to the Epiphyseal Growth Plate

The younger the child is when injury occurs, the greater the

final deficit in length between the injured

limb and the uninjured limb will be.

Condyle – large rounded projection usually for articulation with another bone Tuberosity – large elevated knoblike proj usually for muscle attachment Plate – flat projection Bony prominences – prominice/projection Ridge/crest – thin or narrow process usually on the superior aspect of the bone, known as crest Tubercle – small rounded knob or nodule, usually for attachment of ligament or tendon

Condyle – large rounded projection usually for articulation with another bone

Tuberosity – large elevated knoblike proj usually for muscle attachment

Plate – flat projection

Bony prominences – prominice/projection

Ridge/crest – thin or narrow process usually on the superior aspect of the bone, known as crest

Tubercle – small rounded knob or nodule, usually for attachment of ligament or tendon

Foramen – a hole thru w/c bld vessels, ligament, nerve pass Types of foramen Transverse foramen Vertebral foramen Apical foramen Sciatic foramen Alcock’s canal Carotid canal Infraorbital canal

Foramen – a hole thru w/c bld vessels, ligament, nerve pass

Types of foramen

Transverse foramen

Vertebral foramen

Apical foramen

Sciatic foramen

Alcock’s canal

Carotid canal

Infraorbital canal

Sinus – sponge-like air space within a bone such as paranasal sinuses Cranial/ cerebral fossae – depression in w/c the brain rests Olfactory bulb lies in the ethmoid foassa, mandibl lies in the mandibular or glenoid fossae.

Sinus – sponge-like air space within a bone such as paranasal sinuses

Cranial/ cerebral fossae – depression in w/c the brain rests

Olfactory bulb lies in the ethmoid foassa, mandibl lies in the mandibular or glenoid fossae.

Classification accdg to degree of movement: Synathroses – immovable Amphiarthroses – slightly immovable Diarthroses – freely movable Ligaments – tough fiber that bind bones together Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid, a libricating material Bursae – fluid-filled sac that cushion the movement of mucscles and tendons

Classification accdg to degree of movement:

Synathroses – immovable

Amphiarthroses – slightly immovable

Diarthroses – freely movable

Ligaments – tough fiber that bind bones together

Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid, a libricating material

Bursae – fluid-filled sac that cushion the movement of mucscles and tendons

Hinge (ginglymus) – allows movement only in one plane Ball & socket (spheroidal) rounded end of the bone, moves within a cup-shaped depression in the other bone Pivot joint – one bone pivots or turns within bony or cartilagenous ring Gliding (arthodial plane) bones slide against each other Condyloid joint – oval shape, head of one bone moves within the elliptical in another permitting all movements exept axial rotation

Hinge (ginglymus) – allows movement only in one plane

Ball & socket (spheroidal) rounded end of the bone, moves within a cup-shaped depression in the other bone

Pivot joint – one bone pivots or turns within bony or cartilagenous ring

Gliding (arthodial plane) bones slide against each other

Condyloid joint – oval shape, head of one bone moves within the elliptical in another permitting all movements exept axial rotation

Connect bones to muscle or cartilage Support internal organs or structures Allow great flexeility, stretching, movement Accessory ligaments do not move or stretch but strengthen or support other ligaments to produce stability in joint. A ligament is said to arise or originate in the bone or structure that is more stationary. It is said to insert into the bone that does most of the movement.

Connect bones to muscle or cartilage

Support internal organs or structures

Allow great flexeility, stretching, movement

Accessory ligaments do not move or stretch but strengthen or support other ligaments to produce stability in joint.

A ligament is said to arise or originate in the bone or structure that is more stationary. It is said to insert into the bone that does most of the movement.

Arcuate ligament Broad ligament of uterus Broad ligament of liver Cruciate Henle’s ligament Inguinal ligament Medial ligament Patella ligament Periodontal ligament Pubofemoral ligament Rhomboid ligament Round ligament of femur

Arcuate ligament

Broad ligament of uterus

Broad ligament of liver

Cruciate

Henle’s ligament

Inguinal ligament

Medial ligament

Patella ligament

Periodontal ligament

Pubofemoral ligament

Rhomboid ligament

Round ligament of femur

Type of connective tissue organized into a system of fibers Helps reduce friction in joints & distribute weight evenly Provides slick surface for rotation Absors shocks & jars to the body Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones, such as in the knee or hip joints

Type of connective tissue organized into a system of fibers

Helps reduce friction in joints & distribute weight evenly

Provides slick surface for rotation

Absors shocks & jars to the body

Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones, such as in the knee or hip joints

Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral column, rib cage Appendicular – bones of the extremeties & appendages of the body

Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral column, rib cage

Appendicular – bones of the extremeties & appendages of the body

Scoliosis Lordosis Kyphosis

Scoliosis

Lordosis

Kyphosis

Skeletal Muscle – controls movement of skeleton Smooth/visceral Muscle- controls involuntary motion inside body organs Cardiac Muscle – automatic; responsible for propelling blood thru blood vessels

Skeletal Muscle – controls movement of skeleton

Smooth/visceral Muscle- controls involuntary motion inside body organs

Cardiac Muscle – automatic; responsible for propelling blood thru blood vessels

Heredity Nutrition Exercise Hormones Muscle tissue characteristics

Heredity

Nutrition

Exercise

Hormones

Muscle tissue characteristics

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