Published on February 5, 2014
11th – 15th Centuries NOMADIC INVASIONS Another MIGHTY FINE Presentation of Janet Pareja, Signature School, Evansville, IN
11 – 15 Centuries th • Nomadic tribes TRANSFORMED Eurasia – Persia – Anatolia – India – China
Turkic-speaking Peoples • Loosely structured heterogeneous tribes – Not centralized – clan/tribe loyalty – Strongly Patriarchal – Simple & fluid society – passage betw. classes – Nomads: No agriculture or manufacturing; – Trading partners for settled societies – Long distance trade networks – Shamanism
Turks Unify, Expand… 1. Saljuk Turks • • • • Drawn to Abbasids by trade opportunities 1055 – Tughril Beg named Sultan Expansion caliph became puppet Battle of Manzikert (1071) Fall of Byzantine Empire 2. Ghaznavid Turks: Mahmud of Ghazni – – – – – Afghanistan Plunder N. India Temples Islam
“KHAN” Military Leader for a group of unified tribes
We now interrupt this Turkish Invasion to bring you…
The MONGOL INVASIONS
Imagine… “…that you live in a village that lies in the path of an advancing Mongol horde. You’ve heard stories. If you put up a fight, they’ll pummel you. If you retreat to your house, they’ll burn it. If you organize resistance at your place of worship or city center, they’ll level it. You’ve heard that if you just give in, they might spare you and your city, but they also might not. Your only real choice if you stay alive may be to give in. What would you do?”
“ I am the flail of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you.” Genghis Khan, 1219 Bukhara, Central Asia
“ The accursed of God” Muslim opinion of the Mongols
“Piercing the solid rocks of the Caucasus, they poured forth like devils from the hell of Tartarus. They swarmed locust-like over the face of the earth and brought terrible devastation to the eastern part of Europe, laying it waste with fire and carnage.” Matthew Paris European Christian Chronicler of the Mongols
“The greatest joy a man can know is to conquer his enemies and drive them before him. To ride their horses and take away their possessions. To see the face of those who were dear to them bedewed with tears, and to clasp their wives and daughters in his arms.” - Attributed to Genghis Khan
“Resist and die, or surrender and live.” …(maybe) -Common Mongol ultimatum (also general practice of the era)
Mongols • Life style of Turkic Nomads Nomadic herders Horses!
Life on the Steppes
Have YURT will travel…
The Mongolian Dairy Council wants you to… Drink More Koumiss! “It’s naturally fermented!”
Social Structure • Patriarchal • Place of Women: – Inferior to men, but highly valued as advisors – Marriage - passage to adulthood – Each wife with own yurt • First wife’s yurt faced East; all other faced West – Few widows remarried - cared for by sons
Art, Architecture, Intellectual Advancement…? NOT ABOUT CULTURE!! TRADE & CONQUEST: • Horseback - speed & maneuverability: Romans covered 25 mi/day; Mongols 90. • Highly organized units (decimals)Scouts, light & heavy cavalry Spies & disinformation, tricky strategies. • No supply lines necessary. • Motivation – traitors punished, courage rewarded – swiftly.
Technology Mounted Warfare • Stirrups • Bows • Specially trained horses
Mongol Composite Bow – Could shoot 300 yards while on horseback – Incredibly strong composite material – Tightly strung
Genghis Khan 1. Unification of clans – Stopped in-fighting – Directed energy to conquest…
"Those who were adept and brave I have made military commanders. Those who were quick and nimble I have made herders of horses. Those who were not adept I have given a small whip and sent to be shepherds." -CHINGIS KHAN …On the reorganization of his followers. A brilliant statesmen and a master of efficient government, his reorganization of steppe society contributed to the Mongols' success.
Legacies of Genghis Khan: 2. PAX MONGOLICA – Support of Trade & Crafts • Artisans redistributed throughout Empire • Conquered women – Trade TAXED – Silk Road – Safe passage • Roads patrolled by Mongols – Post houses• Pony Express
3. Vast Movement of People!!! • Conquest • Avoiding conquest! (RUuuuuun!) • Redeployment – Persian Administrators • Did not trust Chinese!! – Craftsmen from Everywhere
Religion (Shamanism ) Tolerance •Encouraged & supported religious leaders- ie: tax relief •Some conversion to Islam, Nestorian Christianity •Legend of Prester John •Pope’s missions to Mongols
3. YASA Legal Code –Brought unity & order –General moral injunctions- honesty, etc. –Hefty & immediate punishment
From “Mongol,” the movie: “Mongols need laws… I will make them obey... Even if I have to kill half of them. Our laws will be simple: - Don't kill women or children. - Don't forget your debts. - Fight enemies to the end. - And never betray your
4. Expansion! If you are not growing, you are dying…
Legacies of Ghengis Khan 5. First Written Mongol Language – Based on Uyghur script
“With Heaven's aid I have conquered for you a huge empire. But my life was too short to achieve the conquest of the world. That task I leave for you.” -CHINGGHIS KHAN What art genre?
"Perhaps my children will live in stone houses and walled towns … Not I." - CHINGHISS KHAN Genghis Khan remained a nomad all his life. His grandson Khubilai Khan, however, converted to sedentary life and some said he became more Chinese than Mongol.
Largest CONTINUOUS LAND EMPIRE in history One of most multicultural, multiethnic in history
1. Great Khanate – China Kublai Khan YUAN Dynasty of China 2. Ilkhanate – Persia –Especially virulent conquest due to insult of shah –Assimilated into Persian culture & Islam… 3. Chagatai True to nomad heritage, lived on horseback 4. Golden Horde – Russia Kept Russia from developing Europeanizing Mongol Hordes
Great Khanate: Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Khan – China – Yuan Dynasty (1271) – Kanbaliq (Beijing) - Capital – Xanadu – summer palace – Marco Polo • NON ASSIMILATION POLICY!! – – – – Replaced Chinese bureaucrats with Persians No intermarriage!! Slave women from conquered peoples. Chinese not allowed to learn the Mongol language Incorporated conquered peoples “who lived in felt tents” into military
Yuan Dynasty • Repaired Infrastructure Promote economic growth: – Rebuilt the Grand Canal, Repaired public buildings, Extended highways • Paper currency re-introduced, but inflation made this an economic disaster…. • Religious tolerance • Continued Conquest - Yunan and Korea, Southern Song and Northern China…. • Accepted court visits by Europeans, – Notably Marco Polo in the 1270’s – (Xanadu)
“You can win an empire on horseback, but you cannot rule from there.” The Mongols were better conquerors than administrators: • • • • • • Factions & in-fighting civil wars, imperial assassinations Constant policing of conquered people, esp. in China Financial difficulty: Paper money debacle Failure to conquer Japan, Vietnam, etc. Death of Kublai Khan’s favorite wife Kublai gets gout. Discontent of Chinese peasants rebellions from 1340 on
Bubonic / Black Plague Began in 1330’s -1340’s – – Spread west with merchants Disrupted economies & societies: • Sometimes killed over half of a population. • Trade ground to a halt • Labor shortages, orphans. • India largely untouched.
End of the Mongol Empire • 1368 • Mongols in China returned to the steppes… • Ilkhanate of Persia fell before the Plague… • Golden Horde dominated western Russia and Caucasus until mid 16th c.! • Khanate of Chagatai prevailed in Central Asia until the 18th c.!
Legacy of the Mongols • World trade, cultural diffusion & awareness grew thanks to Pax Mongolica. The world would never be disconnected again! • Europeans fell in love with Chinese products and would never do without these goods again, no matter the cost! • Because Chinese were not allowed to Mongolize, they didn’t – kept their identity which made it easy to continue the Chinese way of life with Ming upon departure of Mongols. • Russia did not unify or develop as quickly as Europe to the West.
And now, the conclusion of … “The Turkic Conquest”
After the collapse of the Mongols… 3. Timur the Lame – “Tamerlane” • Modeled after Genghis Khan • Massive conquest – late 14th c: – – – – • • • Dominated Chaghatai Khanate Weakened Golden Horde Defeated & ended the Delhi Sultanate Invaded China CONQUEROR, NOT ADMINISTRATOR! Empire fell apart upon his death Inspired rise of Mughal, Safavid, Ottoman Empires
4.Osman Bey • • Late 13th c Most powerful and long-lasting of Nomadic Empires OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Group Discussion Time • What did the Asian nomads really want? • What did they accomplish? • What is their significance to world history?
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