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The (In)adequacy of “Man” as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun ’ish

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Published on December 2, 2008

Author: davidesstein

Source: slideshare.net

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Instead of viewing this slide show, please see the QuickTime movie version:
http://tinyurl.com/ish-man2008
Narrated slide show with professionally designed graphics, as presented to the Bible Translation Section of the Society of Biblical Literature (25 Nov. 2008).
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The (In)adequacy of Man as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun vyIa David E. S. Stein

Frequency vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 2

Frequency vyIa 2,183 times 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 3

Frequency vyIa 2,183 times Source: TLOT ( Jenni-Westermann) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 4

Semantics and Pragmatics vyIa How does this noun function in the Hebrew Bible? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 5

Recent Articles vyIa “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008). 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 6

Recent Articles vyIa “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008). “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew,” Hebrew Studies XLIX (2008): 7–26. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 7

Today’s Question What are the implications for TRANSLATION . . . into English . . . 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 8

Today’s Question What are the implications for TRANSLATION into English with regard to semantic content? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 9

Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 10

Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. 2. 3. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 11

Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. 3. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 12

As a Term of Affiliation 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 13

As a Term of Affiliation vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 14

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 15

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference vyIa PARTICIPANT The Situation in Question 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 16

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 17

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 18

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 19

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of somebody or something else. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 20

As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of of somebody or something else. somebody or something else. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 21

Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. Its primary meaning functions independently of its gender content. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 22

Meaning Semantic Components vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 23

Meaning = Affiliation Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 24

Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 25

Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 26

Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE AN AFFILIATE FEMALE hDÚvIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 27

Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 28

Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 29

Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. Its primary meaning functions independently of its gender content. 3. When it refers to a class (or genus), its gender meaning is muted; it means only that the class (or genus) is not solely female. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 30

Determination and Referential Function vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 31

Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 32

Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 33

Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 34

Meaning = Affiliation vyIa AN AFFILIATE Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 35

Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness vyIa solely AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 36

Determination and Referential Function vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 37

Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 38

Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 39

Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 40

Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness Indefinite vyIa solely AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 41

Context May Constrain the Social Gender AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 42

Focus of Analysis 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 43

Focus of Analysis ≠ 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 44

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 45

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 46

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 47

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t “Let heavier work be laid upon the MyIvÎnSa.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 48

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 49

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 50

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 51

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t laborers, 1 not female 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 52

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 53

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t Definite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 54

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 55

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 56

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t solely NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 57

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t solely NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 58

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 59

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t laborers, 1 not female 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 60

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” —NJPS (1962) Similarly RSV, NASB, NIV, NKJV, NET, HCSB, ESV, ISV (alternate) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 61

Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 62

Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 63

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 64

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” mostly male work force 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 65

Is this rendering accurate? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” mostly male work force 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 66

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 67

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 68

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 69

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 70

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 71

Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 72

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 73

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 74

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 75

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Moreover, the vyIa Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 76

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 77

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 78

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyDrVxIm yEnyEoV;b MDoDh NEj_tRa hDwhy NE;tˆ¥yÅw MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 79

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 80

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 81

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 82

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 83

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 84

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 85

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 86

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Definite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 87

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 88

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 89

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g n-female no special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 90

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g or MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hD IvIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 91

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g or MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hDvIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 92

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g n-female no special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 93

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. —NET Bible (1996) Similarly RSV, NASB, NKJV, HCSB, ISV 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 94

What is this rendering’s gender sense? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 95

Should this rendering convey gender? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 96

Asymmetry in Gender Markers 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 97

Asymmetry in Gender Markers ≠ 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 98

Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 99

Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 100

Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw man man he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw man each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 101

Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 man man he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) man each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 102

Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 103

Should this rendering convey gender? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 104

Should this rend gender? :3 Exodus 11 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 105

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 106

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. male human being 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 107

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 108

Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 109

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 110

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 111

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 112

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw “If the ox of vyIa injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 113

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 114

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 115

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 116

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 117

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 118

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 119

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw party to a legal proceeding, regardless of gender 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 120

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 121

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw Indefinite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 122

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 123

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw NOT FEMALE Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 124

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw solely NOT FEMALE Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 125

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 126

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 127

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 a wa hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw …whEoér rwøv_tR 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 128

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 a wa hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw …whEoér rwøv_tR 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 129

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 130

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 131

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 132

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Job 24:3 …whE rwøv_tRa hDnDmVlAa rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 133

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 134

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw party to a legal proceeding, regardless of gender 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 135

Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” —NET Bible (1996) Similarly RSV, NKJV, ESV 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 136

Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 137

Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 138

Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 139

Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 140

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 141

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male human being 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 142

Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male party 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 143

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 144

Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 145

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 146

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 147

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 148

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 149

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 150

The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 151

The Inaccuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 152

Accurate Rendering as “Man” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 153

Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 154

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl . . . not a dog shall snarl . . . at vyIa or beast. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 155

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 156

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl not a dog shall snarl . . . at man or beast. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 157

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 158

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 159

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 160

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores an vyIa or woman to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 161

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 162

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 163

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 164

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw . . . rwøÚvAh lAoAb…w . . . 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 165

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores a party, male or female, to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 166

Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores a man or woman to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 167

Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering Frequency As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 168

Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering Frequency As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 169

Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 170

Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? vyIa someone • anyone • each • one • party • participant • member • fellow • expert • husband • householder • agent • envoy • delegate • candidate • commissioner • deputy • leader • laborer • heir • troop • representative 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 171

Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? vyIa someone • anyone • each one • man • man • man • • man • man • husband • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 172

The Difference That Affiliation Makes 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 173

The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 174

The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 175

The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 Number of English Translation Equivalents Used NRSV (1989) 10 TNIV (2005) 7 CJPS (2006) 25 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 176

The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 Number of English Translation Equivalents Used NRSV (1989) 10 TNIV (2005) 7 CJPS (2006) 25 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 177

Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 178

Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 179

Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 180

Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 181

Conclusion Judging solely on the grounds of semantic accuracy, rendering vyIa as “man” is usually inadequate. In those instances when the usage of “man” can be justified, the burden of proof is on the translator to show semantic equivalence in terms of both affiliation and gender. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 182

Online Access “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew” http://tinyurl.com/ish-affiliation “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew” http://tinyurl.com/GrammarGender “Preface,” The Contemporary Torah ( JPS, 2006) http://tinyurl.com/CJPS-Preface E-mail: davidesstein@aol.com Freelance editorial services 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 183

Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 184

Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 185

Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 186

Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 187

Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 188

Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 189

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