Published on June 8, 2016
1. May 10, 2016 The Importance of Effective Gas Treatment in Biogas Applications Steven Scott MBA Market Development Manager – Biogas Applications - Biogas Asia Pacific Forum – 25/26 May 2016 – Kuala Lumpur, Malayisa
2. Parker Hannifin Corporation Parker can be found on and around everything that moves. We manufacture highly engineered components and systems that facilitate motion and the controlled flow of liquids and gasses for a wide variety of global markets to increase our customers’ productivity and profitability. Aerospace Climate Control Electromechanical Filtration Fluid & Gas Handling Hydraulics Pneumatics Process Control Sealing & Shielding
3. 3 Biogas is... • Methane (CH4): 45 - 75 % • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): 25 - 45 % • Trace components: 2 - 5 % Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Hydrogen (H2), Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S), Ammonia (NH3), Siloxanes, VOCs • Water (vapour, saturated): 2 – 7% • Dust particles …raw, unprocessed gas collected from biogas digesters. Biogas originating from landfill sites is termed ‘landfill gas‘. A typical composition of biogas / landfill gas is:
4. 4 Problematic Trace Components • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) • Ammonia (NH3) • Siloxanes • Aromatic Hydrocarbon compounds • Halogen compounds (chlorides, fluorides) • Dirt or dust particles • Water
5. Biogas Treatment for Power Generation 5 At Digester Outlet 40-60% CH4 30-50% CO2 0-10% N2 0-2% O2 0-2000+ ppm H2S ppm VOC’s ppm Siloxanes Dirt Particles H2O Saturated At Engine Inlet CH4 CO2/N2/O2 H2S - <100 ppm *Siloxanes: 95-99% removal *Particles <5 micron *H2O – Low dewpoint * Parker Solutions available
6. 6 Biomethane is... …biogas that has had CO2 and other impurities removed to produce a gas with a high methane content similar to that of natural gas. Typical composition is… • Methane (CH4): >97% • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): <2% • H2S: <4 ppm • Water: <65 mg/m3 (approx -40°C PDP) • VOCs and siloxanes: Negligible levels Biomethane is suitable for injection into natural gas distribution networks or as fuel for Natural Gas Vehicles
7. 7 The Effects of Untreated Biogas
8. 8 • Biogas contains small solid particles, foams, greases and other contaminants. • Engines can be damaged by excessive particle contamination so removal is specified by engine manufacturers • Particulate causes clogging or blocking of downstream equipment increasing maintenance costs & downtime. Raw Biogas Filtration Particle Removal FFB Hyperfilter BioEnergy is specifically designed to prevent these undesired effects
9. 9 Top access cover to enable quick and easy element replacement. Support legs for easy installation and mounting. Base acts as a trap for water and other contaminants which can then be effectively removed by the manual drain valve. Stainless steel AISI304 or AISI316L vessel with flanged inlet and outlet pipe connections Two threaded etchings for connection of a differential pressure gauge Raw Biogas Filtration Parker FFB Biogas Filter: Housing
10. 10 Filtration takes place through a porous filter element made of antistatic, spunbonded polyester to ensure optimum filtration efficiency and high stability. Filtration quality: 5 or 20µm Filter element end caps and inner core in galvanized steel. Average Pressure drop: 3mbar. To maintain optimum and effective filtration, filter elements must be replaced at least every 6 months with genuine Parker Hiross parts. Raw Biogas Filtration Parker FFB Biogas Filter: Cartridge
11. 11 Performances refer to models operating with gas flow rate at FAD 20°C/1 barA. Weight includes element without manual drain. A B C D Model Connections Dimensions (mm) Weight m3/h (nom) m3/min (nom) IN OUT A B C D kg FFB105-304 105 1.8 DN50 DN80 440 1454 1330 420 32 FFB265-304 265 4.4 DN80 DN125 440 1424 1300 390 35 FFB720-304 720 12.0 DN125 DN200 625 1838 1595 545 99 FFB1110-304 1110 18.5 DN200 DN300 633 1883 1650 600 108 FFB3180-304 2500 41.7 DN300 DN450 1000 2208 1805 696 255 Model Connections Dimensions (mm) Weight m3/h (nom) m3/min (nom) IN OUT A B C D kg FFB105-316 105 1.8 DN50 DN80 440 1454 1330 420 32 FFB265-316 265 4.4 DN80 DN125 440 1424 1300 390 35 FFB720-316 720 12.0 DN125 DN200 625 1838 1595 545 99 FFB1110-316 1110 18.5 DN200 DN300 633 1883 1650 600 108 FFB3180-316 2500 41.7 DN300 DN450 1000 2208 1805 696 255 Gas Flow* Gas Flow* Raw Biogas Filtration Parker FFB Biogas Filter: Product Range
12. 12 G-Series – Biomethane Filtration Housing: high-grade aluminium, refined by chromating and additional outside surface painting - Connection Type: Threaded F-Series – Biomethane Filtration Housing: High-grade carbon steel, inside and outside protected by a corrosion-inhibiting coating. - Connection Type: Flanged TGE-Series – Raw Biogas Filtration Housing: High-grade stainless steel 1.4301 - Connection Types: Threaded or flanged Designed for operation with both raw biogas and biomethane with full compliance to ATEX and PED regulations Biogas Filtration Biomethane Applications
13. 13 Example: 1,000 Nm3/h of Biogas from digester 35 degC/100% saturated = 47g of water per Nm3/h of biogas 1,000 (Nm3/h) x 24 (hours) x 47 (g/Nm3/h) = 1,128kg water produced per day (more than 1 Tonne of water every day!) Cooling to 5 degC dewpoint will reduce moisture content to 7g/Nm3/h = 168kg water produced per day Cooling to 5 degC dewpoint will remove 960kg water per day Biogas Dehumidification How Much Water in One Day?
14. 1. Increases Efficiency (or Energy Output) of Engine 2. Prevents Corrosion of Pipework and Components 3. Partial Removal of H2S, Ammonia, Siloxanes and other water soluble contaminants 4. Reduces Contamination of Engine Oil 5. Improves lifetime/performance of adsorbents, membranes etc 6. Complies with Technical Instruction of Major Gas Engine Suppliers. 14 Biogas Dehumidification Six Good Reasons to Remove Water from Biogas
15. 15 • High efficiency system • Low pressure drop design • Shell and tube heat exchanger with smooth pipes • Parts in contact with biogas in AISI304 or AISI316L • Shell in AISI304 • Pickling and passivation treatment for corrosion resistance • Flow rates and performances aligned with CHP power range • Suitable for horizontal & vertical installation • Max working pressure: 0.5 barg Biogas Dehumidification WFB Biogas Shell and Tube Cooler
16. • Cyclonic separator optimized for biogas applications • High separation efficiency & very low pressure drop • Material: Stainless steel AISI304 or AISI316L • Pickling & passivation treatment for corrosion resistance • Suitable for horizontal & vertical installations • Design Pressure: 0.5 barg Biogas Dehumidification CSB Biogas Cyclonic Separator
17. 17 Biogas Dehumidification Hyperchill BioEnergy • Designed especially for biogas applications (BioEnergy version) • Provides low-temperature cooling water • Energy-efficient compliant scroll compressors • Packaged with large internal tank and pump • IP 54 rated • All aluminium and copper parts epoxy coated (BioEnergy version)
18. Standard SKID • WFB Cooler (heat exchanger) • CSB Separator • ICE BioEnergy Chiller • Place for FFB filter • Water connections • Counterflanges kit • Expansion Tank • Galvanized steel frame Options • FFB Filter • Hyperdrain • Bypass (only with FFB) Biogas Dehumidification Parker Skid-Mounted Packages
19. Biogas Dehumidification Parker Skid-Mounted Packages 19
20. Siloxanes are organo-silicons added to many personal care products and are present in many biogas substrates Found in shampoos, conditioners, cosmetics, soaps, deodorants, de-foamers, water repellents lubricants, and even some food additives Over 1 million tonnes produced annually by industry worldwide! Siloxane Removal What are Siloxanes? Landfills - Sewage Plants – Food Waste Plants
21. 21 C8H24O4Si4 O2 Heat D4 Siloxane CO2 H2O SiO2 + + + = SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide = Sand) Siloxane Removal What happens inside the engine?
22. Siloxane Removal What happens inside the engine? • Siloxanes convert to silicon dioxide under engine environment & conditions. • Deposits rise, efficiency falls reducing generating capacity • Engine components are damaged and oil-life shortened • Cost in components, labour, downtime & additional oil changes…..lost profit!
23. • Removes up to 98% of siloxanes • Payback can be achieved in 12 months • Can reduce engine annual maintenance costs by as much as 80% • Compact, skid-mounted design • Low power consumption & minimal maintenance • More than 100 units sold worldwide Siloxane Removal Parker PpTek Regenerative SRS
24. Siloxane Removal VOC Adsorption
25. Siloxane Removal Parker PpTek Regenerative SRS
26. • Ability to regenerate media on site using TSA technology • Polymeric, man-made resin media up to 10 x as absorbent as activated carbon (AC) • Media can be designed to last up to 5 years • Minimal media disposal cost • Hydrophobic media increases adsorption capacity Siloxane Removal Parker PpTek System v Other Solutions Media x1750 magnification
27. 27 Biogas Treatment Solutions Summary- Parker BioEnergy
It is important that a biogas system never has ... Treatment of the landfill gas is ... The Chinese have experimented with the applications of biogas ...
... levels in the gas. The treatment of biogas may include ... all applications designed for natural gas such as ... 10 ppm is important to ...
The selection of effective Biogas treatment is therefore particularly important, ... as those experienced in Biogas applications ... Sewage Gas applications, ...
HOME > applicationS > biogas: ... Biogas is useful as a fuel to operate small power ... Xebec offers other biogas treatment options depending on the source and ...
... which makes it comparable to conventional natural gas and thus a suitable energy source in applications ... Treatment. Biogas ... Biogas Into Renewable Natural Gas;
Biogas in the United States. ... treatment plants. Biogas could be used on-site to generate electricity or to ... Overall demand for natural gas (including biogas) ...
Importance of Biomass Energy By Salman Zafar ... can also produce clean energy in the form of biogas and producer gas which can be converted to power and heat ...
... Malaysia in conjunction with the BIOGAS ASIA PACIFIC FORUM 2016 (25 ... THE IMPORTANCE OF GAS TREATMENT IN BIOGAS APPLICATIONS ... Biogas Applications PARKER ...
5.6.1 Biogas as vehicle fuel ... environmentally sustainable solutions for the treatment and recycling of ... are some of the most important applications of AD ...