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The Impact of External Events on Singapore

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Information about The Impact of External Events on Singapore

Published on February 15, 2008

Author: theracie

Source: slideshare.net

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chapter four How did external events before WWII affect Singapore?

Lesson Objectives Impact of the Industrial Revolution Impact of the opening of The Suez Canal Impact of WWI Impact of the The Great Depression

Impact of the Industrial Revolution

Impact of the opening of The Suez Canal

Impact of WWI

Impact of the The Great Depression

The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) The revolution took place largely as a result of the setting up of factories and the invention of steam-power machines . In the steam engine, coal was burnt to change water into steam. The pressure from the steam provided energy for machines to produce goods in great quantities.

The revolution took place largely as a result of the setting up of factories and the invention of steam-power machines .

In the steam engine, coal was burnt to change water into steam. The pressure from the steam provided energy for machines to produce goods in great quantities.

The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) The Spinning Jenny produced more cloth easily and at a faster rate in great quantities. ---  Raw materials for the factories and new markets for the manufactured goods were needed. The invention of steam-powered ships meant that ships could travel faster, at any time of the year, and over longer distances. Significance: These changes transformed the way people lived and worked.

The Spinning Jenny produced more cloth easily and at a faster rate in great quantities. ---  Raw materials for the factories and new markets for the manufactured goods were needed.

The invention of steam-powered ships meant that ships could travel faster, at any time of the year, and over longer distances.

Significance: These changes transformed the way people lived and worked.

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Singapore Great Increase in Trade With the invention of the steamship, more Europeans could sail to the East to obtain raw materials and find markets for their goods. Result: More ships visited Singapore ---  Growth in volume of trade

Great Increase in Trade

With the invention of the steamship, more Europeans could sail to the East to obtain raw materials and find markets for their goods.

Result: More ships visited Singapore ---  Growth in volume of trade

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Singapore Singapore’s role was enhanced From the 1880s, Western steamships made Singapore their port-of-call, where their ships stopped to refuel, get new food supplies, sell their good and buy raw materials. Many Asian traders also used steamships to transport their goods between Singapore and other neighbouring ports. Result: Singapore gained importance as a port for the collection of goods from the East and the distribution of manufactured goods from the West.

Singapore’s role was enhanced

From the 1880s, Western steamships made Singapore their port-of-call, where their ships stopped to refuel, get new food supplies, sell their good and buy raw materials.

Many Asian traders also used steamships to transport their goods between Singapore and other neighbouring ports.

Result: Singapore gained importance as a port for the collection of goods from the East and the distribution of manufactured goods from the West.

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Singapore Closer links with the World Communications improved with the arrival of steamships. Letters, instead of taking months to arrive, now took weeks. Result: With a speedier delivery time for letters and documents, Singapore came into closer contact with the world.

Closer links with the World

Communications improved with the arrival of steamships.

Letters, instead of taking months to arrive, now took weeks.

Result: With a speedier delivery time for letters and documents, Singapore came into closer contact with the world.

The Industrial Revolution Great Increase in Trade Singapore’s role was enhanced Closer links with the world

The Suez Canal (1869) The need for raw materials and new markets for the goods prompted merchants to seek a shorter route to the East. Prior to the opening of the Suez Canal, ships traveling between Europe and Asia had to sail around the Cape of Good Hope. This journey was often a perilous one, spanning the duration of 120 days. Ships could not sail during certain periods of the year as winds were not always favourable.

The need for raw materials and new markets for the goods prompted merchants to seek a shorter route to the East.

Prior to the opening of the Suez Canal, ships traveling between Europe and Asia had to sail around the Cape of Good Hope.

This journey was often a perilous one, spanning the duration of 120 days. Ships could not sail during certain periods of the year as winds were not always favourable.

The Suez Canal (1869)

The Suez Canal (1869) Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French engineer, drew plans to shorten the sea route around Africa by cutting a long canal to link the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. With the opening of the Suez route, the trade route was shortened significantly.

Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French engineer, drew plans to shorten the sea route around Africa by cutting a long canal to link the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea.

With the opening of the Suez route, the trade route was shortened significantly.

Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore Lowered Shipping costs Cargo and mail took a shorter time to travel from Europe to Singapore. Result: Due to the savings in distance and time, the cost of shipping goods was reduced. Traders now found it faster and cheaper to get their goods from overseas .

Lowered Shipping costs

Cargo and mail took a shorter time to travel from Europe to Singapore.

Result: Due to the savings in distance and time, the cost of shipping goods was reduced. Traders now found it faster and cheaper to get their goods from overseas .

Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore Singapore’s role was enhanced A great expansion in Singapore’s trade occurred. This was due to the increased volume and ships passing through the area to refuel and collect food supplies. Result: Singapore maintained its role as a port-of-call and as an important trading centre.

Singapore’s role was enhanced

A great expansion in Singapore’s trade occurred.

This was due to the increased volume and ships passing through the area to refuel and collect food supplies.

Result: Singapore maintained its role as a port-of-call and as an important trading centre.

Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore New Developments in Port Facilities The Old Harbour in Singapore became overcrowded. Result: The New Harbour was built. Due to the deep waters, steamships and sailing ships could sail right up to the harbour.

New Developments in Port Facilities

The Old Harbour in Singapore became overcrowded.

Result: The New Harbour was built. Due to the deep waters, steamships and sailing ships could sail right up to the harbour.

Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore The Singapore Harbour Board was set up to make improvements to the port. Result: New buildings were built (wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops) and modern machinery (forklifts, cranes and tractors) were used. Result: A railway system was set up to link the port to other parts of Malaya. Implication: These improvements provided better and faster services in handling goods brought in by ships. Singapore became one of the busiest ports in Asia.

The Singapore Harbour Board was set up to make improvements to the port.

Result: New buildings were built (wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops) and modern machinery (forklifts, cranes and tractors) were used.

Result: A railway system was set up to link the port to other parts of Malaya.

Implication: These improvements provided better and faster services in handling goods brought in by ships. Singapore became one of the busiest ports in Asia.

The Opening of the Suez Canal Lowered shipping costs Singapore’s role was enhanced New Developments in port facilities

 

World War I (1914-1919) The rivalry existing between the powers meant that the onset of war was highly possible. War was sparked off when the Archduke of Austria Hungary – Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. Austria-Hungary demanded action by Serbia to punish those responsible and, when Austria-Hungary deemed Serbia had not complied, declared war. Within weeks, major European powers were at war because of overlapping agreements for collective defense and the complex nature of international alliances.

The rivalry existing between the powers meant that the onset of war was highly possible.

War was sparked off when the Archduke of Austria Hungary – Franz Ferdinand was assassinated.

Austria-Hungary demanded action by Serbia to punish those responsible and, when Austria-Hungary deemed Serbia had not complied, declared war.

Within weeks, major European powers were at war because of overlapping agreements for collective defense and the complex nature of international alliances.

Impact of World War I on Singapore Temporary Inflation of food prices News of the war caused the locals to rush to buy necessities . Even traders from neighbouring islands stocked their shops with food they bought from Singapore. Prices of necessities skyrocketed.

Temporary Inflation of food prices

News of the war caused the locals to rush to buy necessities .

Even traders from neighbouring islands stocked their shops with food they bought from Singapore.

Prices of necessities skyrocketed.

Impact of World War I on Singapore Controls on imports and exports In a bid to fight inflation, the government forbade the export of large amounts of foodstuff to neighbouring countries. The government also increased the imports of rice from Siam and Vietnam and reassured everyone that there was sufficient food. Result of government actions: Prices fell and trade resumed.

Controls on imports and exports

In a bid to fight inflation, the government forbade the export of large amounts of foodstuff to neighbouring countries.

The government also increased the imports of rice from Siam and Vietnam and reassured everyone that there was sufficient food.

Result of government actions: Prices fell and trade resumed.

Impact of World War I on Singapore Effect of the Emden Incident When a German warship, the Emden arrived in the East in 1914, its presence affected trade between Singapore and Europe as it attacked British trading ships in the Indian Ocean. Result: Entrepot trade declined and food could not be imported. However, this was only temporary as the ship was destroyed months later.

Effect of the Emden Incident

When a German warship, the Emden arrived in the East in 1914, its presence affected trade between Singapore and Europe as it attacked British trading ships in the Indian Ocean.

Result: Entrepot trade declined and food could not be imported.

However, this was only temporary as the ship was destroyed months later.

Impact of World War I on Singapore Internal security threats On Feb 1915, some Sepoys rose up against the British when they heard rumours that they might be sent to Europe or Turkey to fight against Muslims. The rebels went around killing Europeans The mutiny was eventually put down after 10 days. The mutiny did not garner support from the locals despite causing much anxiety in Singapore.

Internal security threats

On Feb 1915, some Sepoys rose up against the British when they heard rumours that they might be sent to Europe or Turkey to fight against Muslims.

The rebels went around killing Europeans

The mutiny was eventually put down after 10 days.

The mutiny did not garner support from the locals despite causing much anxiety in Singapore.

Impact of World War I on Singapore Internal security threats The majority of local Indians remained indifferent. The Sikh police remained loyal to the British as well. Significance: The Sepoy Mutiny reminded the British that they could not afford to be careless about Singapore’s defence. It highlighted that threats to Singapore’s peace could originate internally and externally .

Internal security threats

The majority of local Indians remained indifferent.

The Sikh police remained loyal to the British as well.

Significance: The Sepoy Mutiny reminded the British that they could not afford to be careless about Singapore’s defence.

It highlighted that threats to Singapore’s peace could originate internally and externally .

WWI Temporary inflation of food prices Effect of the Emden Incident Internal Security Threats Controls on imports and exports

The Great Depression (1930s) A Depression is a time when there is a great decrease in business activities with widespread unemployment. While this event occurred in America, it affected many of her trading partners , including Singapore. Singapore was badly affected as she depended on trade to survive.

A Depression is a time when there is a great decrease in business activities with widespread unemployment.

While this event occurred in America, it affected many of her trading partners , including Singapore.

Singapore was badly affected as she depended on trade to survive.

Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore Decrease in trade and business Singapore, which was closely involved in the trading of tin and rubber, was affected as the demand for certain commodities including tin and rubber dropped. Because Singapore’s economy depended largely on overseas trade, the depression caused companies in Singapore to suffer losses.

Decrease in trade and business

Singapore, which was closely involved in the trading of tin and rubber, was affected as the demand for certain commodities including tin and rubber dropped.

Because Singapore’s economy depended largely on overseas trade, the depression caused companies in Singapore to suffer losses.

Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore Adapted from Wong Lin Ken, Singapore: Its Growth as an Entrepot 1910-1941 in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol. IX No.1 282.9 1930 659.3 1925 608.4 1920 Singapore’s total trade with the West (S$m)

Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore High rates of Unemployment Business sentiments were so poor that many businessmen, particularly those who depended on overseas trade, lost their wealth or became bankrupt. Businessmen cut expenses by retrenching workers. Result: Widespread unemployment and hardship It was extremely difficult for the unemployed to find new jobs as there were limited ones available. Many Indians and Chinese returned to their homeland when their family and friends could no longer support them financially. In 1931, about a third of the working population was unemployed.

High rates of Unemployment

Business sentiments were so poor that many businessmen, particularly those who depended on overseas trade, lost their wealth or became bankrupt.

Businessmen cut expenses by retrenching workers.

Result: Widespread unemployment and hardship

It was extremely difficult for the unemployed to find new jobs as there were limited ones available.

Many Indians and Chinese returned to their homeland when their family and friends could no longer support them financially.

In 1931, about a third of the working population was unemployed.

Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore British restrictions on immigration To alleviate the economic situation, the government passed a law in 1930 to reduce and restrict the number of immigrants entering Singapore. Large numbers of unemployed Chinese and Indians were sent back to their homeland.

British restrictions on immigration

To alleviate the economic situation, the government passed a law in 1930 to reduce and restrict the number of immigrants entering Singapore.

Large numbers of unemployed Chinese and Indians were sent back to their homeland.

The Great Depression Decrease in trade and business High Rates of Unemployment British restrictions on immigration

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