the Ihram

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Information about the Ihram

Published on September 24, 2007

Author: lawrencerlst

Source: slideshare.net

The State of Ihram During the Hajj to Mecca By Emily Rompelman

- WHAT IS ‘IHRAM’? - WHERE AND WHEN DOES IHRAM START? - REASONS OF IHRAM PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM HOW TO WEAR THE IHRAM - PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS OF IHRAM - PHYSICAL EXCEPTIONS TO IHRAM - SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM - VARIATIONS BY GENDER - THE CESSATION OF IHRAM HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS PERSONAL ACCOUNTS RESOURCES TABLE OF CONTENTS

- WHAT IS ‘IHRAM’?

- WHERE AND WHEN DOES IHRAM START?

- REASONS OF IHRAM

PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM

HOW TO WEAR THE IHRAM

- PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS OF IHRAM

- PHYSICAL EXCEPTIONS TO IHRAM

- SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM

- VARIATIONS BY GENDER

- THE CESSATION OF IHRAM

HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS

PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

RESOURCES

WHAT IS ‘IHRAM’? “ al-ihram”: means ‘prohibition’ or making unlawful First prescribed ritual act of the hajj, marking the entrance into spiritual purification, represented through physical and spiritual change. - At the specific ‘miquat’ or sacred point, men are to take off all stitched clothing and put on two hirrawems, or white cloths. One on the lower portion of the body from the waist down and the other is shoulder down, covering only the left shoulder, leaving the right shoulder and arm open for movement. Because of technological advances, pilgrims dress in airplanes or other modes of transportation. Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 7158 Peters, F.E., p. 117, 114-115

“ al-ihram”: means ‘prohibition’ or making unlawful

First prescribed ritual act of the hajj, marking the entrance

into spiritual purification, represented through physical and spiritual

change.

- At the specific ‘miquat’ or sacred point, men are to take off all stitched

clothing and put on two hirrawems, or white cloths. One on the lower

portion of the body from the waist down and the other is shoulder down,

covering only the left shoulder, leaving the right shoulder and arm open

for movement.

Because of technological advances, pilgrims dress in airplanes or other

modes of transportation.

WHERE AND WHEN DOES IHRAM START? Peters, F.E., p. 114-115 Encyclopedia of Religion, p. 7158 Begins with salat (daily prayers); trims nails, shaves all hair (further cutting of nails and hair is prohibited) Niyah : Prayer that declares a pilgrim’s intention of lesser pilgrimage (circumambulate the Ka’ba) Salat: formal prostrations in the direction of the Ka’ba, done Twice before entering sacred territory. Then done at dawn, noon, midday, sunset and dusk. Du’at: asking God for supplication Talbiyyah: said loudly when passing through markers and Voiced frequently throughout the hajj. Translated to: “ Here I am, O Lord! What is Thy command?” or “At Your Service O Lord, at Your Service”

Begins with salat (daily prayers); trims nails, shaves all hair

(further cutting of nails and hair is prohibited)

Niyah : Prayer that declares a pilgrim’s intention of lesser

pilgrimage (circumambulate the Ka’ba)

Salat: formal prostrations in the direction of the Ka’ba, done

Twice before entering sacred territory. Then done at dawn,

noon, midday, sunset and dusk.

Du’at: asking God for supplication

Talbiyyah: said loudly when passing through markers and

Voiced frequently throughout the hajj. Translated to: “ Here

I am, O Lord! What is Thy command?” or “At Your Service O

Lord, at Your Service”

REASONS OF IHRAM One’s ihram represents their answering God’s call - The physical aspect represents the burial shroud; as one enters ihram and performs the hajj, their soul is the only thing in front of God and not their body. Brotherhood: The uniform cloth represents how all Muslims are brothers, which the hajj and umrah celebrate. Peters, F.E., p. 115

One’s ihram represents their answering God’s call

- The physical aspect represents the burial shroud; as one

enters ihram and performs the hajj, their soul is the only

thing in front of God and not their body.

Brotherhood: The uniform cloth represents how

all Muslims are brothers, which the hajj and umrah celebrate.

PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM “ ‘ He [man] shall not wear shirt, nor turban, nor Trousers, nor headgear, nor any dyed cloth; and if he Cannot find footwear, then let him wear leather Stockings, but cut off so they may be lower than the ankles.’” - Bukhari, The Sound 3.53 - Clothing- hirrawems : white cloths; a belt can be used to hold up the lower cloth. Footwear- Gimgameea : thin-soled shoes where leather only covers the toes. It appears that flip-flop Sandals are appropriate. - One is to not wear any perfumes or scents. Peters, F.E., p. 55-56, 115-116 Click picture to view an online store

“ ‘ He [man] shall not wear shirt, nor turban, nor

Trousers, nor headgear, nor any dyed cloth; and if he

Cannot find footwear, then let him wear leather

Stockings, but cut off so they may be lower than the

ankles.’”

- Bukhari, The Sound 3.53

- Clothing- hirrawems : white cloths; a belt can be

used to hold up the lower cloth.

Footwear- Gimgameea : thin-soled shoes where

leather only covers the toes. It appears that flip-flop

Sandals are appropriate.

- One is to not wear any perfumes or scents.

HOW TO WEAR THE IHRAM Wishah (normal way): The izar, or lower cloth, is worn from waist down and the rida, or upper cloth, is worn to cover the shoulders. Idtiba (done when entering Tawaf ul Qudom, to perform the hajj): the rida is put over the left shoulder, from back to front, with the other end under his right arm and put over the left shoulder. Textile Research Center, Leiden Netherlands click picture for various applications of the ihram

Wishah (normal way): The izar, or lower cloth,

is worn from waist down

and the rida, or upper cloth,

is worn to cover the shoulders.

Idtiba (done when entering Tawaf ul Qudom,

to perform the hajj): the rida is put over

the left shoulder, from back to front, with

the other end under his right arm and

put over the left shoulder.

PHYSICAL RESTRICTIONS OF IHRAM Cutting or shaving any hair, until the sacrifice of animals is done. - Cutting the nails. - Men cannot wear any stitched clothing or head coverings (hat/turban, etc). Wearing shoes or socks above the ankle. - Covering the face. - Hunting animals: Some tell that a pilgrim, when in ihram, cannot even kill a flea. If the bug is sucking their blood, one may move it to another spot on their body, but cannot kill it.. - Fornication. Peters, F.E., p. 117 http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php

Cutting or shaving any hair, until the sacrifice of animals is done. - Cutting the nails. - Men cannot wear any stitched clothing or head coverings

(hat/turban, etc).

Wearing shoes or socks above the ankle. - Covering the face. - Hunting animals: Some tell that a pilgrim, when in ihram,

cannot even kill a flea. If the bug is sucking their blood, one

may move it to another spot on their body, but cannot kill it.. - Fornication.

PHYSICAL EXCEPTIONS TO IHRAM Only in cases of extreme heat can one put on their original clothes. If this occurs regular clothing can be put on. When the pilgrim reaches Mecca, they have to put on the Ihram shroud, sacrifice a sheep and then give it to the poor. Peters, F.E., p. 116-117

Only in cases of extreme heat can one put on their original

clothes. If this occurs regular clothing can be put on.

When the pilgrim reaches Mecca, they have to put on the

Ihram shroud, sacrifice a sheep and then give it to the poor.

SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF IHRAM - Because one is in front of God, tempers, desires and language have to be censored. Forbidden aspects vary by school : for example the Shafi’ite school does not allow pilgrims to look in a mirror. Brotherhood: as all pilgrims are dressed alike, socio-economic and backgrounds are to disappear. Peters, F.E., p. 115-117, 119

- Because one is in front of God, tempers, desires and

language have to be censored.

Forbidden aspects vary by school : for example the Shafi’ite

school does not allow pilgrims to look in a mirror.

Brotherhood: as all pilgrims are dressed alike,

socio-economic and backgrounds are to disappear.

VARIATIONS BY GENDER http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php Physical Differences: Women are allowed to wear dresses, traditionally white, but can now wear various colors. A woman cannot cover their face but cover their hair with scarves. Women can also wear stitched clothing. Spiritual Differences: Women follow the additional spiritual guidelines as male pilgrims. For example, women cannot sell wild animals, break an egg of a wild bird, etc…

Physical Differences: Women are allowed to wear

dresses, traditionally white, but can now

wear various colors. A woman cannot cover

their face but cover their hair with

scarves. Women can also wear stitched

clothing.

Spiritual Differences: Women

follow the additional spiritual guidelines as

male pilgrims. For example, women

cannot sell wild animals, break an

egg of a wild bird, etc…

VARIATIONS BY GENDER, cont… When menstruating: A woman must perform the obligatory bath (ghusi) before entering ihram and before saying her intentions (niyat). Women can perform everything, but are required to bathe before circumambulating the Ka’ba. Women need to perform the hajj with a mahram (someone who the woman cannot marry). If a woman feels as if she will tempt men, she may use an umbrella to shield her face. http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php

When menstruating: A woman must perform the obligatory

bath (ghusi) before entering ihram and before saying her

intentions (niyat). Women can perform everything, but are

required to bathe before circumambulating the Ka’ba.

Women need to perform

the hajj with a mahram (someone

who the woman cannot marry). If

a woman feels as if she will tempt

men, she may use an umbrella to

shield her face.

THE CESSATION OF IHRAM - Only once all rituals have been performed can one rightfully discard their ihram shroud. The ritual sacrificing of the sheep occurs and then pilgrims can put on their original clothing or even new clothes. It is at this time that the celebration begins and the pilgrims congratulate each other on their completing the hajj. Festival at the end of the hajj Peters, F.E., p. 254

- Only once all rituals have been performed can one

rightfully discard their ihram shroud.

The ritual sacrificing of the sheep occurs and then

pilgrims can put on their original clothing or even

new clothes. It is at this time

that the celebration begins

and the pilgrims

congratulate each other

on their completing the

hajj.

HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS Ibn Battuta : At the mosque of Dhu Hulayfa (5 mi. from Medina), the Prophet assumed the pilgrim garb and entered the ihram state. He said a prayer and made two bowings, making his intentions for the Greater Pilgrimage known. Burton’s : Miquat was al-Zariba. When entering ihram, he bathed, faced Mecca and said: “I vow this ihram of the Hajj and the Umrah to Allah Almighty”. They he bowed twice and prayed: “O Allah! Verily I purpose the Hajj and the Umrah, then enable me to accomplish the two, and accept them both of me and make both blessed to me.” He then says the talbiyya. Peters, F.E., p. 104, 117-118

Ibn Battuta : At the mosque of Dhu Hulayfa (5 mi. from

Medina), the Prophet assumed the pilgrim garb and

entered the ihram state. He said a prayer and made two

bowings, making his intentions for the Greater Pilgrimage

known.

Burton’s : Miquat was al-Zariba. When entering ihram, he bathed, faced

Mecca and said: “I vow this ihram of the Hajj and the Umrah to Allah

Almighty”. They he bowed twice and prayed: “O Allah! Verily I purpose

the Hajj and the Umrah, then enable me to accomplish the two, and

accept them both of me and make both blessed to me.” He then says

the talbiyya.

http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiwZB6-L1fE PERSONAL ACCOUNTS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyLqu-utGPU http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=fP5dWtHw- -I Various personal accounts of the hajj and ihram can be found online. Here are a few links to YouTube videos, giving additional information on ihram.

RESOURCES INFORMATION: Encyclopedia of Religion . Jones, L. (Ed.) 2 nd Ed. Vol. 10. Thompson Gale: NY, 2005. Peters, F. E., The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places . Princeton University Press: NJ, 1994. http://home.tiscali.nl/willemvogelsang/Exhibitions/hajjexhibition.digital/hajj.ihramdress/ ihram.dress/hajj.ihram.How%20is%20ihram%20worn%20during%20the%20Hajj.htm http://islamicvoice.com/December2006/Rituals/?PHPSESSID=4e3796a9c2fd5e71640a1 -e72ee7902f6 PICTURES: Various online sources. http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php http://www.YouTube.com

INFORMATION:

Encyclopedia of Religion . Jones, L. (Ed.) 2 nd Ed. Vol. 10. Thompson Gale: NY, 2005.

Peters, F. E., The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places . Princeton

University Press: NJ, 1994.

http://home.tiscali.nl/willemvogelsang/Exhibitions/hajjexhibition.digital/hajj.ihramdress/

ihram.dress/hajj.ihram.How%20is%20ihram%20worn%20during%20the%20Hajj.htm

http://islamicvoice.com/December2006/Rituals/?PHPSESSID=4e3796a9c2fd5e71640a1

-e72ee7902f6

PICTURES:

Various online sources.

http://www.salaam.co.uk/themeofthemonth/december02_index.php

http://www.YouTube.com

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