The Hydrological Cycle

50 %
50 %
Information about The Hydrological Cycle

Published on September 11, 2007

Author: fozzie

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Presentation showing the workings of the Hydrological cycle for AS level students

Unit 1

The movement of water from the sea through the air to the land and back to the sea

The movement of water from the sea through the air to the land and back to the sea

Water has changed little over the past hundred million years. You will be drinking water drunk before. Water moves around the world, changes forms, is taken in by plants and animals, but never really disappears. It travels in a large, continuous loop. It is a closed system, meaning it has no other interferences; what goes in stays in. It does not change as it evolves.

Water has changed little over the past hundred million years. You will be drinking water drunk before.

Water moves around the world, changes forms, is taken in by plants and animals, but never really disappears. It travels in a large, continuous loop.

It is a closed system, meaning it has no other interferences; what goes in stays in. It does not change as it evolves.

It is a system of inputs, stores, flows and Water covers 70% of the earth’s surface Water exists in three states: liquid, solid and invisible vapour. It forms the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and the underground waters found in the top layers of the earth’s crust and soil cover. In a solid state, it exists as ice and snow cover in polar and alpine regions. A certain amount of water is contained in the air as water vapour, water droplets and ice crystals, as well as in the biosphere. Huge amounts of water are bound up in the composition of the different minerals of the earth’s crust and core.

It is a system of inputs, stores, flows and

Water covers 70% of the earth’s surface

Water exists in three states: liquid, solid and invisible vapour.

It forms the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and the underground waters found in the top layers of the earth’s crust and soil cover.

In a solid state, it exists as ice and snow cover in polar and alpine regions.

A certain amount of water is contained in the air as water vapour, water droplets and ice crystals, as well as in the biosphere. Huge amounts of water are bound up in the composition of the different minerals of the earth’s crust and core.

The stages of the cycle are: Evaporation Transport Condensation Precipitation Groundwater Run-off

The stages of the cycle are:

Evaporation

Transport

Condensation

Precipitation

Groundwater

Run-off

Water is transferred from the surface to the atmosphere through evaporation , the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas. The sun’s heat provides energy to evaporate water from the earth’s surface. Land, lakes, rivers and oceans send up a steady stream of water vapour and plants also lose water to the air (transpiration). Approximately 80% of all evaporation is from the oceans, with the remaining 20% coming from inland water and vegetation.

Water is transferred from the surface to the atmosphere through evaporation , the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas. The sun’s heat provides energy to evaporate water from the earth’s surface. Land, lakes, rivers and oceans send up a steady stream of water vapour and plants also lose water to the air (transpiration).

Approximately 80% of all evaporation is from the oceans, with the remaining 20% coming from inland water and vegetation.

The movement of water through the atmosphere, specifically from over the oceans to over land, is called transport . Some of the earth’s moisture transport is visible as clouds, which themselves consist of ice crystals and/or tiny water droplets. Clouds are propelled from one place to another by either the jet stream, surface-based circulations like land and sea breezes or other mechanisms. However, a typical cloud 1 km thick contains only enough water for a millimetre of rainfall, whereas the amount of moisture in the atmosphere is usually 10-50 times greater than this. Most water is transported in the form of water vapour, which is actually the third most abundant gas in the atmosphere. Water vapour may be invisible to us, but not to satellites which are capable of collecting data about it.

The movement of water through the atmosphere, specifically from over the oceans to over land, is called transport . Some of the earth’s moisture transport is visible as clouds, which themselves consist of ice crystals and/or tiny water droplets.

Clouds are propelled from one place to another by either the jet stream, surface-based circulations like land and sea breezes or other mechanisms. However, a typical cloud 1 km thick contains only enough water for a millimetre of rainfall, whereas the amount of moisture in the atmosphere is usually 10-50 times greater than this.

Most water is transported in the form of water vapour, which is actually the third most abundant gas in the atmosphere. Water vapour may be invisible to us, but not to satellites which are capable of collecting data about it.

The transported water vapour eventually condenses , forming tiny droplets in clouds.

The transported water vapour eventually condenses , forming tiny droplets in clouds.

The primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth is precipitation . When the clouds meet cool air over land, precipitation, in the form of rain, sleet or snow, is triggered and water returns to the land (or sea). A proportion of atmospheric precipitation evaporates.

The primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth is precipitation .

When the clouds meet cool air over land, precipitation, in the form of rain, sleet or snow, is triggered and water returns to the land (or sea). A proportion of atmospheric precipitation evaporates.

Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground and this is the main source of the formation of the waters found on land - rivers, lakes, groundwater and glaciers. Some of the underground water is trapped between rock or clay layers - this is called groundwater . Water that infiltrates the soil flows downward until it encounters impermeable rock and then travels laterally. The locations where water moves laterally are called ‘aquifers’. Groundwater returns to the surface through these aquifers , which empty into lakes, rivers and the oceans. Under special circumstances, groundwater can even flow upward in artesian wells. The flow of groundwater is much slower than run-off with speeds usually measured in centimetres per day, metres per year or even centimetres per year.

Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground and this is the main source of the formation of the waters found on land - rivers, lakes, groundwater and glaciers.

Some of the underground water is trapped between rock or clay layers - this is called groundwater . Water that infiltrates the soil flows downward until it encounters impermeable rock and then travels laterally. The locations where water moves laterally are called ‘aquifers’. Groundwater returns to the surface through these aquifers , which empty into lakes, rivers and the oceans.

Under special circumstances, groundwater can even flow upward in artesian wells. The flow of groundwater is much slower than run-off with speeds usually measured in centimetres per day, metres per year or even centimetres per year.

Most of the water which returns to land flows downhill as run-off . Some of it penetrates and charges groundwater while the rest becomes river flow. As the amount of groundwater increases or decreases, the water table rises or falls accordingly. When the entire area below the ground is saturated, flooding occurs because all subsequent precipitation is forced to remain on the surface. Different surfaces hold different amounts of water and absorb water at different rates. As a surface becomes less permeable, an increasing amount of water remains on the surface, creating a greater potential for flooding. Flooding is very common during winter and early spring because frozen ground has no permeability, causing most rainwater and meltwater to become run-off.

Most of the water which returns to land flows downhill as run-off . Some of it penetrates and charges groundwater while the rest becomes river flow. As the amount of groundwater increases or decreases, the water table rises or falls accordingly. When the entire area below the ground is saturated, flooding occurs because all subsequent precipitation is forced to remain on the surface.

Different surfaces hold different amounts of water and absorb water at different rates. As a surface becomes less permeable, an increasing amount of water remains on the surface, creating a greater potential for flooding. Flooding is very common during winter and early spring because frozen ground has no permeability, causing most rainwater and meltwater to become run-off.

the cycle as a closed system

the cycle as a closed system

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Water cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the H 2 O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the ...
Read more

A Summary of the Hydrologic Cycle: bringing all the pieces ...

A Summary of the Hydrologic Cycle bringing all the pieces together Animation by: Bramer. The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of water from the ...
Read more

Description of the Hydrologic Cycle - nwrfc.noaa.gov

Description of the Hydrologic Cycle This is an education module about the movement of water on the planet Earth. The module includes a discussion of water ...
Read more

NWS JetStream - The Hydrologic Cycle

The hydrologic cycle involves the continuous circulation of water in the Earth-Atmosphere system. At its core, the water cycle is the motion of the water ...
Read more

Environment and Climate Change Canada - Water - The ...

Description of the hydrologic cycle; i.e., the circulation of water from the atmosphere to the earth and its return to the atmosphere through condensation ...
Read more

The Hydrologic Cycle: online meteorology guide

A brief encapsulation of the hydrologic cycle, plus an example of the hydrologic cycle at work. Acknowledgments
Read more

Hydrology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water ...
Read more

BBC - GCSE Bitesize: The hydrological cycle

The hydrological cycle. The hydrological cycle is also known as the water cycle. Seas and oceans contain 97 per cent of the world's water, and ice holds 2 ...
Read more

Hydrological cycle - WaterWiki - Wikia

The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or HO cycle, describes the continuous...
Read more

The water cycle, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water ...

Earth's water is always in movement, and the natural water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above ...
Read more