The Gilded Age and Progressivism

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Information about The Gilded Age and Progressivism
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Published on December 7, 2007

Author: Abigail

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Gilded Age Politics C. 1876—1900 Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Warner (1873) Political equilibrium Civil service reform, currency, and the tariff Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Strict Constructionists Commander in Chief Enforcer of laws passed by Congress Head of political party Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics High Voter Participation— Why? (1) People believed that the issues were important (2) People believed that their votes counted (3) Politics = Entertainment Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Involved electorate, but what determined how it voted? Republicans: Protestants of English and German descent, Southern Blacks, and Union Civil War Veterans. Ohio River Valley, the West, and New England Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Democrats: Southern Whites, Roman Catholics, Jewish people, immigrants under the influence of party bosses. Campaigns—Republicans: The Bloody Shirt Veterans’ Pensions Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Nativism Campaigns—Democrats: Republicans will take your booze away Played to Race in the South Maintained that Republicans were corrupt Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Why the push for Civil Service Reform? President Ulysses S. Grant (R) Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Patronage Roscoe Conkling— Stalwart James Blaine— Half-Breed Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics President Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics President James A. Garfield (R) Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics A disgruntled patronage seeker, Charles J. Guiteau (1840?-1882), assassinated Garfield Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics President Chester A. Arthur (R) Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) “Merit-based system” Put approximately 14% of Federal Jobs under classified services; jobs were obtained through competitive examinations. Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics The Tariff By 1888, over 4,000 items imported into the US had duties of roughly 45%. Created tensions between industry and agriculture Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Protectionism Arthur appointed a special Tariff Commission (1882) Recommended lowering the tariff 20-25% “Riders” Mongrel Tariff (1883) Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics The Underwood Tariff (1913) Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913) Currency debtors vs. creditors Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Legal Tender—US can require creditors to accept its paper money as payment for debt. Greenbacks $450,000,000 Gilded Age Politics:  Gilded Age Politics Hepburn v. Griswold (1870) Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase Specie Resumption Act (1874) Slide20:  Coinage Act (1873) Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)—required Federal Government to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month with Federal Bank Notes The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt (1) High railroad rates in farming regions (2) Overcharged and ripped off by middlemen (3) Hurt by high tariff (4) Victimized by eastern bankers (5) Not enough money The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt The Grange The Farmers’ Alliance Cooperatives Crop Sub-Treasuries The Populists The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt Mary E. Lease (1850-1933) The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt Populist Platform endorsed at the Party Convention, Omaha, Nebraska 4 July 1892: (1) Crop sub-treasury (2) Free and unlimited coinage of silver at 16 to 1 (3) Graduated income tax The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt (4) Nationalization of railroads, telegraphs, and telephones (5) Eight-hour workday (6) Immigration restrictions (7) Initiative, Referendum, and Recall (8) Australian Ballot The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt (9) Direct election of United States Senators (10) At least $50.00 in circulation per capita The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt Election of 1892 James B. Weaver (1833-1912) (P) Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, and Nevada The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt Presidential Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan (D) (1860-1924) The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt William McKinley (R) (1843-1901) The Agrarian Revolt:  The Agrarian Revolt Bryan lost. Why? Exuded Protestant evangelism Republicans would not join the Populist/Democrat fusion Many believed he was communistic or anarchistic; American labor did not join the American farmer Legacies of the 1896 Election:  Legacies of the 1896 Election A new campaigning style Ascendancy of the industrial over the agricultural Beginning of the end of American mass political participation Decline of Party and the rise of Special Interest Groups The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era The desire to use government as an agency of human welfare Antecedents of Progressivism: (1) Movement owed a great deal to Populism (2) Social Critics and Writers— The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Individuals who Theodore Roosevelt described as the “lunatic fringe of muckrakers” a. Henry Demarest Lloyd used articles to attack monopoly including, “Story of a Great Monopoly” in Atlantic Monthly (1881) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era b. Ida M. Tarbell also targeted John D. Rockefeller with her History of the Standard Oil Co. The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era c. Lincoln Steffens wrote about municipal corruption in Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis for McClure’s, Everybody’s, and Cosmopolitan The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Four features of Progressivism: Democratic Direct primaries Initiative, referendum, and recall Income Taxes (XVI Amendment 1913) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Direct election of US Senators (XVII Amendment 1913) Government efficiency City Manager Staunton, Virginia (1908) National Association of City Managers The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era “Fighting Bob” Robert M. La Follette (R) (1855-1925) Legislative Reference Bureau “Wisconsin idea” The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Regulation Increased tendency to direct some business activities through federal regulations Social Justice Settlement House movement The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Jane Addams (1860-1935) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Ellen G. Starr (1860-1940) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Hull House Chicago, Illinois (1889) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era The National Child Labor Committee (1904) By 1914, 35 state legislatures had passed laws prohibiting children under age fourteen from working The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Florence Kelly (1859-1932) National Consumers’ League Sociologist Louis D. Brandeis The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire (New York, 1911) Liquor Prohibition—”manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors . . . prohibited.” (XVIII Amendment 1919) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Leon F. Czolgosz (1873-1901) assassinated William McKinley (1901) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Theodore Roosevelt (R) (1858-1919) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Roosevelt wished to avoid socialism and a return to laissez faire Used the “carrot and the stick” approach Anthracite Coal Strike (May-October 1902) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era John Mitchell (1870-1913) United Mine Workers’ Union The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era 20% wage increase Eight-hour workday Union recognition Mine operators led by George F. Baer General John M. Schofield binding arbitration The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Everybody got something: 10% pay increase Nine-hour workday Operators not required to recognize the United Mine Workers’ Union Roosevelt the“Trust Buster” Northern Securities Company The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era US Attorney General Philander C. Knox (1853-1921) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904) US Supreme Court ruled that the NSC was an “unreasonable restraint of trade” and ordered it dissolved The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Bureau of Corporations within the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) to collect statistics and investigate the activities of corporations. The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era The Presidential Election of 1904 Alton B. Parker (D) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) Slide58:  LTC Roosevelt and the Rough Riders, San Juan Hill, Cuba 1898 The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era In the Spanish-American War (1898), 5,462 Americans died, but only 379 in combat The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Meat Inspection Act (1906) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era In 1905, by the authority of the Forest Reserve Act (1891), 172 million acres placed under Federal protection The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906) As Roosevelt’s Administration progressed, he favored: Income tax Inheritance tax Greater regulation of Business Industrial Safety Regulations The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era The Presidential Election of 1908 William Jennings Bryan (D) (1860-1924) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era William Howard Taft (R) (1857-1930) The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Taft never wished to run for president, but he could not say “NO” to Teddy Roosevelt Major Archibald Butt, Aid to TR and Taft The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Roosevelt assumed that Taft would continue his activist progressive policies, but he was badly disappointed The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era The Election of 1912 Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive or “Bull Moose” Party The Progressive Era:  The Progressive Era Woodrow Wilson (D) (1856-1924)

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