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The Foundations of Group Behavior

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Business & Mgmt

Published on March 5, 2009

Author: gar_dev

Source: slideshare.net

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The Foundations of Group Behavior
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THE FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR By: Stephen Robbins & Timothy Judge Prepared by: GREGAR DONAVEN E. VALDEHUEZA, MBA Lourdes College Instructor

Learning Objectives Differentiate between formal and informal groups. Compare two models of group development. Explain how role requirements change in different situations. Describe how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior. Explain what determines status. Define social loafing and its effect on group performance. Identify the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups. List the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making. Contrast the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal, and electronic meeting groups.

Differentiate between formal and informal groups.

Compare two models of group development.

Explain how role requirements change in different situations.

Describe how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.

Explain what determines status.

Define social loafing and its effect on group performance.

Identify the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups.

List the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.

Contrast the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal, and electronic meeting groups.

Defining and Classifying Groups Group Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

Group

Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

Formal Groups A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Task Group Those working together to completes a job task.

Formal Groups

A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure.

Command Group

A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.

Task Group

Those working together to completes a job task.

Informal Groups A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contract. Interest Group Those working together to complete a job task. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.

Informal Groups

A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contract.

Interest Group

Those working together to complete a job task.

Friendship Group

Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.

Why do people join groups? Security. By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of “standing alone”. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. Status. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. Self-esteem. Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. Affiliation. Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation. Power. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers. Goal Achievement. There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task – there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job. In such instances, management will reply on the use of a formal group.

Security. By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of “standing alone”. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group.

Status. Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members.

Self-esteem. Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves.

Affiliation. Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation.

Power. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers.

Goal Achievement. There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task – there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job. In such instances, management will reply on the use of a formal group.

Stages of Group Development The Five-Stage Group-Development Model The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

The Five-Stage Group-Development Model

The five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

Stage I: Forming The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. Stage II: Storming The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Stage III: Norming The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.

Stage I: Forming

The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership.

Stage II: Storming

The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict.

Stage III: Norming

The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.

Stage IV: Performing The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Stage V: Adjourning The fifth stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.

Stage IV: Performing

The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.

Stage V: Adjourning

The fifth stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.

An Alternative Model: For Temporary Groups with Deadlines Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Transitions temporary groups go through between inertia and activity.

Punctuated-Equilibrium Model

Transitions temporary groups go through between inertia and activity.

Sequencing Action (Inaction) (1) Their first meeting sets the group’s direction (2) This first phase of group activity is one of inertia (that is, the group tends to stand still or become locked into a fixed course of action.) (3) A transition takes place at the end of this first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allocated time (4) A transition initiates major changes (5) A second phase of inertia follows the transition (6) The group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity

Sequencing Action (Inaction)

(1) Their first meeting sets the group’s direction

(2) This first phase of group activity is one of inertia (that is, the group tends to stand still or become locked into a fixed course of action.)

(3) A transition takes place at the end of this first phase, which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allocated time

(4) A transition initiates major changes

(5) A second phase of inertia follows the transition

(6) The group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity

Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, and Cohesiveness Role A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a special unit.

Role

A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a special unit.

Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Psychological Contract – an unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee, and vice versa. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.

Role Identity

Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.

Role Perception

An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.

Role Expectations

How others believe a person should act in a given situation.

Psychological Contract – an unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee, and vice versa.

Role Conflict

A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.

Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.

Norms

Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.

Common Classes of Norms Performance norms (formal) Appearance norms (formal) Social arrangement norms (informal) Allocation of resources norms (formal & informal) Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Group – important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform. Deviant Workplace Behavior ( antisocial behavior or workplace incivility ) Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.

Common Classes of Norms

Performance norms (formal)

Appearance norms (formal)

Social arrangement norms (informal)

Allocation of resources norms (formal & informal)

Conformity

Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.

Reference Group – important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.

Deviant Workplace Behavior

( antisocial behavior or workplace incivility )

Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members.

Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Stealing from the organization Lying about hours worked Sabotage Property Wasting resources Intentionally working slowly Leaving early Production EXAMPLES CATEGORY Stealing from coworkers Verbal abuse Sexual harassment Personal aggression Blaming coworkers Gossiping and spreading rumors Showing favoritism Political EXAMPLES CATEGORY

Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.

Status

A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.

What Determines Status? Status Characteristics Theory Theory stating that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups. Derived from three sources: The power a person wields over others A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals An individual’s personal characteristics Status and Norms Status has been shown to have some interesting effects on the power of norms and pressures to conform.

What Determines Status?

Status Characteristics Theory

Theory stating that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups.

Derived from three sources:

The power a person wields over others

A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals

An individual’s personal characteristics

Status and Norms

Status has been shown to have some interesting effects on the power of norms and pressures to conform.

Status and Group Interaction High-status people tend to be more assertive than low-status people. Status Inequity When inequity is perceived, it creates disequilibrium, which results in various types of corrective behavior. Status and Culture Make sure you understand who and what holds status when interacting with people from a culture different from your own.

Status and Group Interaction

High-status people tend to be more assertive than low-status people.

Status Inequity

When inequity is perceived, it creates disequilibrium, which results in various types of corrective behavior.

Status and Culture

Make sure you understand who and what holds status when interacting with people from a culture different from your own.

Size The physical dimensions, proportions, magnitude, or extent of an object ( www.thefreedictionary.com )

Size

The physical dimensions, proportions, magnitude, or extent of an object ( www.thefreedictionary.com )

Social Loafing the tendency for individuals to expend (spend) less effort when working collectively than when working individually. causes: If one thinks others are lazy, the person reestablish equity by reducing effort. Dispersion of responsibility

Social Loafing

the tendency for individuals to expend (spend) less effort when working collectively than when working individually.

causes:

If one thinks others are lazy, the person reestablish equity by reducing effort.

Dispersion of responsibility

The research on group size leads to two additional conclusions: Groups with an odd number of members tend to be preferable to those with an even number. Groups made up of five to seven numbers do a pretty good job of exercising the best elements of both small and large groups.

The research on group size leads to two additional conclusions:

Groups with an odd number of members tend to be preferable to those with an even number.

Groups made up of five to seven numbers do a pretty good job of exercising the best elements of both small and large groups.

Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.

Cohesiveness

Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.

Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity Low productivity Moderate to low productivity High productivity Moderate productivity Low High High Low C O H E S I V E N E S S P E R F O R M A N C E N O R M S

Suggestions on how to encourage group cohesiveness: Make the group smaller. Encourage agreement with group goals. Increase the time members spend together. Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group. Stimulate competition with other groups. Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members. Physically isolate the group.

Suggestions on how to encourage group cohesiveness:

Make the group smaller.

Encourage agreement with group goals.

Increase the time members spend together.

Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group.

Stimulate competition with other groups.

Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members.

Physically isolate the group.

Group Decision Making Groups versus the Individual Decision-making groups may be widely used in organizations, but does that imply that group decisions are preferable to those made by an individual alone?

Groups versus the Individual

Decision-making groups may be widely used in organizations, but does that imply that group decisions are preferable to those made by an individual alone?

Strengths of Group Decision Making More complete information and knowledge Increased diversity of views Increased acceptance of a solution Weaknesses of Group Decision Making Conformity pressures in groups Dominated by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility

Strengths of Group Decision Making

More complete information and knowledge

Increased diversity of views

Increased acceptance of a solution

Weaknesses of Group Decision Making

Conformity pressures in groups

Dominated by one or a few members

Ambiguous responsibility

Effectiveness and Efficiency Effectiveness In terms of accuracy , group decisions are generally more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group but less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate group member. Decision effectiveness in terms of speed , individuals are superior. If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective. If effectiveness means the degree of acceptance of final solution achieves, group is more effective. Efficiency In terms of efficiency, groups almost always stack up as a poor second to the individuals. Exceptions only in achieving comparable quantities of diverse input.

Effectiveness and Efficiency

Effectiveness

In terms of accuracy , group decisions are generally more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in a group but less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate group member.

Decision effectiveness in terms of speed , individuals are superior.

If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective.

If effectiveness means the degree of acceptance of final solution achieves, group is more effective.

Efficiency

In terms of efficiency, groups almost always stack up as a poor second to the individuals. Exceptions only in achieving comparable quantities of diverse input.

Groupthink and Groupshift Two byproducts of group decision making. Groupthink Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.

Groupthink and Groupshift

Two byproducts of group decision making.

Groupthink

Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.

Symptoms of a Groupthink phenomenon: Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. No matter how strongly the evidence may contradict their basic assumptions, members behave so as to reinforce those assumptions continually. Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily express doubts about any of the group’s shared views or who question the validity of arguments supporting the alternative favored by the majority. Members who have doubts or hold differing points of view seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus by keeping silent about misgivings and even minimizing to themselves the importance of their doubts. There appears to be an illusion of unanimity. If someone doesn’t speak, it’s assumed that he/she is in full accord. In other words, abstention becomes viewed as a ‘YES’ vote.

Symptoms of a Groupthink phenomenon:

Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. No matter how strongly the evidence may contradict their basic assumptions, members behave so as to reinforce those assumptions continually.

Members apply direct pressures on those who momentarily express doubts about any of the group’s shared views or who question the validity of arguments supporting the alternative favored by the majority.

Members who have doubts or hold differing points of view seek to avoid deviating from what appears to be group consensus by keeping silent about misgivings and even minimizing to themselves the importance of their doubts.

There appears to be an illusion of unanimity. If someone doesn’t speak, it’s assumed that he/she is in full accord. In other words, abstention becomes viewed as a ‘YES’ vote.

What managers should do to minimize groupthink? Monitor group size. Managers should encourage group leaders to play an impartial role. Appoint one group member to play the role of devil’s advocate. Use exercises that stimulate active discussion of diverse alternatives without threatening the group and intensifying identity protection.

What managers should do to minimize groupthink?

Monitor group size.

Managers should encourage group leaders to play an impartial role.

Appoint one group member to play the role of devil’s advocate.

Use exercises that stimulate active discussion of diverse alternatives without threatening the group and intensifying identity protection.

Groupshift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk. Groupshift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision on the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion. The greater occurrence of the shift toward risk: Familiarization among the members Admiring individuals who are willing to take risks Diffuses responsibility

Groupshift

A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.

Groupshift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision on the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion.

The greater occurrence of the shift toward risk:

Familiarization among the members

Admiring individuals who are willing to take risks

Diffuses responsibility

Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting groups Typical groups, in which members interact with each other face-to-face. Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. Electronic Meeting A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.

Group Decision-Making Techniques

Interacting groups

Typical groups, in which members interact with each other face-to-face.

Brainstorming

An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.

Nominal Group Technique

A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.

Electronic Meeting

A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.

Evaluating Group Effectiveness Low Moderate High High Development of group cohesiveness Moderate Moderate Not applicable High Commitment to solution Low Moderate Low High Potential for interpersonal conflict High High High Low Task orientation Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Speed High Low Low Low Money costs Low Moderate Low High Social pressure High High Moderate Low Number and quality of ideas Electronic Nominal Brainstorming Interacting EFFECTIVENESS CRITERIA TYPE OF GROUP

- END - Clarifications? Suggestions? Violent reactions? If none, then you may go. Take care everyone. 

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